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50

There wasn't a lack of food in the UK, not in the sense that people weren't getting enough to eat or were suffering malnutrition. What there was is a lack of variety of food. Anything which was imported (citrus, tropical fruits, tea, coffee, sugar), expensive (meat) or important to the war effort (fats, meat, canned anything) would be rationed. Rationing ...


39

1932 There are two chief interpretations of the 1932 Soviet famine, or especially the more infamous Ukrainian component, the Holodomor. That the famine was at least partially caused or exacerbated by Soviet policies is well established. The main difference between the schools of thought is the degree to which Soviet authorities perpetuated or even ...


30

This is a controversial subject both historically and politically. It is not settled history and is debated by historians on both sides of the issue. Given that here is the case made for genocide. Genocide is defined as the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. By that basis I've seen it argued the ...


24

According to my quick reading of the Life and death during the Great Depression by José A. Tapia Granadosa and Ana V. Diez Roux, the only noticeable increase of mortality was suicide, with a noticeable decline of mortality in every other category. It's interesting that this paper was written in 2009, before the (shall we say) sensationalist Russian claim of ...


22

Health researchers collected data on causes of death in 114 U.S. cities during the Great Depression. Their findings confirm the impressions of many observers in the 1930s, mortality did not increase during the Great Depression: They include a table that shows trends in death rates per 100,000 population. Starvation does not appear on the list, nor does it ...


20

That's an interesting bit of ridicule, but I think the truth goes deeper than that. The fact is that for most North Koreans, if the women quit working on the black market (aka "free market"), they and their familes would have no money and no food. This isn't a historical thing, but an everyday thing. The choice there today is to work in the black market, or ...


18

In 1943, some 3 million indian subjects of the British Raj died due to bengal famine. I think the most authentic and rich source for examining and finding evidences against Churchill in this incident is Madhusree Mukerjee's book, 'Churchill's Secret War', which reveals a side of Churchill's largely ignored in the West and considerably tarnishes his heroic ...


14

UK, like most other developed (and not so developed) countries, does not produce all food that it consumes. Some food is imported. In the case of UK during WW2 much of the food was imported. As the war started, a) the oceans became dangerous. Because of the German cruisers and submarines. b) the shipping capacities were needed for other purposes (to ship ...


11

The answers @bhau and @coleopterist gave are good and marshal a lot of important evidence, but there are complementary points of view someone ought to mention - so I guess it falls to me to do this. Madhusree Mukerjee's findings have been disputed by the eminent Indian economist Amartya Sen. I haven't read both books yet but perusal of the wiki entry about ...


10

From what I've gathered from books (e.g. Joseph Baratz' A Village By the Jordan: The Story of Degania and Daniel Gavron's The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia) kibbutzim were of critical importance to Israel prior to and in the immediate period after of the state's foundation. They were both collective and agricultural enterprises, they also offered local ...


9

A few points not covered in other excellent answers: Wealthy peasants, the Kulaks, were specifically targeted by Soviet regime. Whilst these peasants were comparably wealthy and resistant to land reform - they were also the farmers most likely to be literate, skilled and possessing efficient farming infrastructure. Killing these peasants reduced the ...


8

I think implicit in this question is an underestimation of the difficulty of feeding a nation. In a market economy, it seems to happen magically as prices coordinate labor and resources, but commanding the millions of people with disparate knowledge successfully is actually incredibly difficult. Consider the famous example of the pencil http://www.econlib....


8

tl;dr Was the loss of life in the Bengal famine of 1943 the largest British empire human loss in the Second World War? Yes, without doubt. Did Churchill expressly refuse to alleviate the famine with food aid, or veto US and Australian offers to send food? Absolutely not. The evidence shows that statement is completely untrue, although it might be argued ...


8

Although the Soviet propaganda film "Aleksandr Parkhomenko" issued in 1942 is set during the World War I, a German officer of the Kaiser's army in the film expresses some similar ideas. For instance, he says that inevitably the people will starve on the occupied territory, but this is not bad, because Germany does not need the population, but rather the ...


7

The other answer notes that this remains a controversial subject, and has already presented most of the evidence used by nationalist historians to make the case that the "Irish Potato Famine", or "Great Famine", was an instance of genocide. However, it is equally important to examine the evidence that those historians tend to ignore. I will try to present ...


7

Are there instances where collective farming has actually brought benefit to the population of an area Yes. The shift towards peasant collective farming, generally involving strip rotation of shares, from enslaved farming brought widespread improvements to the standard of living of medieval peasants in England. Collective farming of this nature was the ...


7

You are making a number of assumptions here which are not correct. The basic mechnanism of the pre-war famines was this: Stalin was pursuing a policy of rapid and extensive industrialization. This policy, which was not based on organic growth, necessitated the purchase on a huge scale of Western (largely American) technology and expertise. Whole factories ...


6

When did the word Holodomor appear? Wikipedia explains the etymology of holodomor as follows: The word Holodomor literally translated from Ukrainian means "death by hunger", or "to kill by hunger, to starve to death". Sometimes the expression is translated into English as "murder by hunger or starvation". Holodomor is a compound of the Ukrainian words ...


5

The ships that were used for the transport to Canada were called Coffin Ships. A genealogy page has this to say concerning these vessals And so the first ships were commissioned and set sail, loaded with human cargo, for British North America (Canada). Many of these vessels were overloaded. Each held an average of 300 persons, some two or three ...


3

Two points: First, if you look closely at the numbers, you see a big rise in the death rate from heart disease and a smaller rise in the death rate from cancer during that period. It's not obvious that either would be much affected by malnutrition. (If anything, given how heart disease is driven by obeasity, the opposite may be true.) If you subtract those ...


2

A few locations - mainly from economic history & cliometrics: Famine Trends Dataset, Tables and Graphs (Tufts Fletcher School, updated to 2011) Famine in the Twentieth Century, IDS WP 105 (2000) Our World in Data on Famine, with a section on Data Sources (multiple)


2

Arguably yes, but one doesn't have to look for exotic biological weapons when ordinary nuclear weapons could be used. The whole logic behind "counter value" targeting was to have a second-strike that could survive the initial onslaught (dispersed bombers and submarines) and strike back at civilian targets (since hitting back at military targets might not be ...


2

The original report comes from Report of the cruise of the U.S. revenue steamer Thomas Corwin, in the Arctic Ocean, 1881, by Calvin Leighton (C.L.) Hooper, of the US Revenue Cutter Service. I found this by reviewing the references in the OP: In that year Capt. C. L. Hooper, in command of the U.S. Revenue Steamer Corwin, stopped At. St. Lawrence to ...


2

A lot of the time it was the Soviet Union government deliberately trying to starve some of their people to get rid of the "undesirable" people. Sometimes it was because the Soviet Union government didn't know how to properly feed their people, and when they did they chose to ignore the people. The last major famine in the USSR happened mainly in 1947, ...


2

About the bicycle thing... I don't know if they are allowed or not but I'm pretty sure they do. Pics from fall 2014 (own work)


1

Mark Tauger's 2003 analysis of the Bengal famine, which has been used by Madhushree Mukerjee in her book on the famine, in fact does actually bring to doubt the contention of Amartya Sen in his 1981 work that there was sufficient food supply before the Bengal famine, or was at least comparable to what was available in 1941, a non-famine year. Sen has stuck ...


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