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29

Q Why does a Star of David appear at a rally with Francisco Franco? Because the symbol was much more ambiguous at the time, and not a one-to-one signifier of "Jewishness". Because Franco had his base in Northern Africa, Morocco, and the symbol represents this early power base, just as the other flags show where his support came from. Most probably because ...


28

There is a confusion of terminology at work, here. First of all, you have to understand what the terms involved were not: They weren't the "loaded" terms we recognize them as from today's point of view. Fascists were followers of the Partito Nazionale Fascista. That is where the term originated, and that was all it originally meant. Nazis were followers of ...


17

I am not sure what Hitler did know about the political details of Spain and I certainly cannot be sure of what he was thinking, so I will just laid out some data and thoughts: While Franco's side is usually labeled as "fascist", the truth is that it was a blend of forces, including the Church, traditionalists and monarchists of several branches, grand ...


16

Although we can't tell the colours from the OP's photo, and although the dimensions are different, circumstantial evidence suggests this may be the flag of the Khalif of Morocco, the puppet ruler who helped Franco's nationalists (see below). Image source: Flags of the World The hexagram flag is almost certainly a reference to Spanish Morocco (with which, ...


15

It is wrong to say that Italian Jews were not exterminated. They in fact were, but only after Italy was occupied by German forces. Regarding the stance of the Italian government and fascist party, it did not express much of anti-Semitic ideology. At the origins of the fascist party were many Jews, and also Jewish black-shirt brigades of Jabotinsky were ...


12

SHORT ANSWER Mussolini's earliest known statements referred to Hitler's 'confused' NSDAP program (in 1922). Shortly after, he said Hitler was an 'extreme rightist'. Mussolini's first known statement after actually meeting Hitler for the first time in 1934 was that the German dictator was a 'mad little clown'. Just before the meeting, he had called him a '...


11

First of all notice that although many Jews might have perished in Germany, by large the highest fraction was killed in the extermination camps of occupied Poland. Back to Italy now. Even though the Italian Government put emphasis on the purity of the "Italian Race", it was not until 1938 that a specific law against the "Jewish Race" was approved. Italian ...


10

Hitler is saying that he thinks he can make use of the Spanish communists, some day, so some sort of contact with them ought to be maintained (that's the metaphor "keep them on the back burner.") He's saying that the communists lost out firstly to democracy, and then later they lost out to Franco and his group. He's agreeing with something that Speer seems ...


10

From what I can tell, the International Brigades were mostly effective only for propaganda purposes and to camouflage the presence of Soviet assistance to the Republican government. The 32,000-35,000 men in the brigades were a grab-bag of unemployed workers, middle class non-combatants, veterans from the first world war, etc; all motivated by a shared ...


9

What I think happened here is a case of gradual exaggeration. Benito Mussolini, who started the Italian Fascist party, was a socialist. But he got kicked out of the socialist party for supporting Italian involvement in WWI. Since he was no longer in the socialist party, he started his own organization, which eventually became the fascist party. Although ...


8

The term would be used for people who were identifiable as members of the National Fascist Party or its subsidiary organisations. They tended to wear uniforms (to an extent that has no parallel in US politics) so they would be fairly easy to identify. Reading about the party will give you an idea of the opinions they were likely to hold, and act on, but ...


8

The Spanish Civil War started as a combination of an officers' revolt, plus a coup. The coup "failed," as such (few government leaders were captured by the Nationalists). That may have led to a false sense of security by the government. They probably thought that it was just a rising of a few disaffected officers, and not a full-scale rebellion that would ...


7

Points to be taken into account: In the months leading to the coup, there had been lots of political violence and terrorism. the workers that would be receiving weapons would not be under the government control, they would be managed by the trade unions/political parties they belonged to. With the enemy (as far as the government knew) isolated in Africa (...


7

The answer to your question is: Yes. The Communist Party of Germany (KPD) referred to the Nazis as "Faschisten" long before the Nazis came to power. Their struggle against the regime (once the latter was in place) was called "antifaschistischer Widerstand" (anti-fascist resistance).


7

According to that obscure source, Wikipedia, on 9 May 1936 King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Emmanuel_III_of_Italy1 Thus I guess that the only empire proclaimed by the Fascist government of Italy on 9 May 1936 was the Italian Empire of Ethiopia. It is unlikely that the Fascists would ...


6

Simply, a member of a fascist youth organization. They possibly had some uniform or a badge that would identify them. This is like a boy-scout in the USA.


5

Think of it this way. Contemporary to Mussolini and Hitler, every major European country had a "fascist" movement with a "national socialist" type ideology. Arrow Cross, Nasjonalsamling, Iron Guard, NSB, and so forth. All of them were variously "marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of ...


5

IT didn't exist at the time, so technically the answer is zero, none. If you mean companies that are currently IT companies, and created and sold equipment explicitly for the purpose of use in the holocaust, that'd exclude any company outside German occupied Europe, Spain, Italy, Sweden, and Switzerland, as there simply was no trade during the holocaust ...


5

How did they view themselves? Let's ask them. Take the diaries of Joseph Goebbels. He writes in the extant works about national-socialism and fascism, mostly as a differentiation. But differentiating between what? He does not identify himself as a fascist. The fascists are the Italians, under Mussolini. They are not only allies. They are brothers in mind ...


5

Theoretical conceptions of history as "grand events" with "meanings" are highly controversial amongst historians. Historians generally prefer to talk about processes causing further processes. In relation to WWII, the idea that WWII was fought in order to end racism or exterminationalist racism is rare. The defeat of the exterminationalist German ...


4

I answered the original question in Politics, https://politics.stackexchange.com/questions/362/did-the-socialist-and-the-fascist-party-share-the-electoral-programme-in-italy , albeit not having found the PSI program online. The programs, as Lennart Regebro's answer points, are very different, and the difference isn't merely literary, ie, they say different ...


4

In general you're right that their role was greatly overblown by foreign and Republican media, in order to create the impression of a worldwide popular mobilization standing shoulder to shoulder with the Spanish Republic, which clearly was not the case. It's not fair to say that the International Brigades suffered, in an absolute sense, from lack of ...


4

Short answer: the destruction and deprivation of World War I. In these circumstances, a decisive, confident leader with a quick and radical solution has much more chances for popular support.


4

At a very high level economic systems can be classified into 4 groups by two criteria: public or private ownership, and central or decentralized control. Capitalism as commonly practiced in English-speaking democracies is typically private ownership with decentralized control. Capitalism as typically practiced in European democracies has private ownership ...


4

The Ku Klux Klan is a Christian terrorist group because they engaged in acts of terror. They burned down churches and executed people they considered harmful to their vision of Christian and American ideology. There still exist people who claim to be Christians and forbid interracial marriages. There still exist people who claim to be Christians and claim ...


4

In addition to other answers, it should be noted that the Germans were taking Spanish "Red" exiles to forced labour and extermination camps - notably Mauthausen - since 1940 and kept doing so until the end of the war. Clearly, that's not what could be expected if Hitler planed to be eventually in the same side of the "Reds" or make any use of them.


4

Whilst there's an implication of strength through unity, it's not exactly what the Roman symbol means., which is a symbol of the office. Whilst it's suggested by the symbol, to make the leap from Fascism to Fasces is overly simplistic. Fascism draws it's ideological roots from the Fin de siècle zeitgeist of the late 19th Century. This period was ...


3

What does it mean, in practice, that North Korea calls itself the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea"? Nothing. It's a title, a meaningless proclamation, but little else. Of course, the fascist governments of that era understood that inspirational dreams of reclaiming past glory do matter to a country's citizens, and that proclamation was part of the ...


3

Definitely not. Consider for instance, Austrian fascism. Austria is a country with totally similar culture and they got their fascist regime as well. Ironically it was hostile towards Nazi regime in Germany.


3

A historian named David Bankier wrote a classic book in the 1960s called The Germans and the Final Solution: Public Opinion under Nazism. Bankier argues (as quoted in a student book review) that “unprecedented political apathy, coupled with the conservative and clerical oppositionist attitudes” shaped strategic decisions in 1936 and 1937. This doesn't ...


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