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36

Q Why does a Star of David appear at a rally with Francisco Franco? Because the symbol was much more ambiguous at the time, and not a one-to-one signifier of "Jewishness". Because Franco had his base in Northern Africa, Morocco, and the symbol represents this early power base, just as the other flags show where his support came from. Most ...


33

There is a confusion of terminology at work, here. First of all, you have to understand what the terms involved were not: They weren't the "loaded" terms we recognize them as from today's point of view. Fascists were followers of the Partito Nazionale Fascista. That is where the term originated, and that was all it originally meant. Nazis were followers of ...


22

Although we can't tell the colours from the OP's photo, and although the dimensions are different, circumstantial evidence suggests this may be the flag of the Khalif of Morocco, the puppet ruler who helped Franco's nationalists (see below). Image source: Flags of the World The hexagram flag is almost certainly a reference to Spanish Morocco (with which, ...


19

SHORT ANSWER Mussolini's earliest known statements referred to Hitler's 'confused' NSDAP program (in 1922). Shortly after, he said Hitler was an 'extreme rightist'. Mussolini's first known statement after actually meeting Hitler for the first time in 1934 was that the German dictator was a 'mad little clown'. Just before the meeting, he had called him a '...


18

I am not sure what Hitler did know about the political details of Spain and I certainly cannot be sure of what he was thinking, so I will just laid out some data and thoughts: While Franco's side is usually labeled as "fascist", the truth is that it was a blend of forces, including the Church, traditionalists and monarchists of several branches, grand ...


13

I checked Lenin's "Collected Works," Volume 33, 1921-1923. There is nothing even close to such a telegram. (For comparison, the volume contains such "masterpieces" as a letter to a Congress of Statisticians, from November 4, 1922, consisting of a single sentence.) Hence, it is very unlikely that this telegram ever existed. This volume of &...


12

How did they view themselves? Let's ask them. Take the diaries of Joseph Goebbels. He writes in the extant works about national-socialism and fascism, mostly as a differentiation. But differentiating between what? He does not identify himself as a fascist. The fascists are the Italians, under Mussolini. They are not only allies. They are brothers in mind ...


11

No. Franco was a Falangist, and called himself that. (In real life more of a military opportunist, who grabbed his chance.) Fascists were the followers of Mussolini. Hitler was a National-Socialist. Each saw themselves as distinctly different from the other. Fascist became the generic term for all of them after WW2. Mainly because international socialists ...


10

Hitler is saying that he thinks he can make use of the Spanish communists, some day, so some sort of contact with them ought to be maintained (that's the metaphor "keep them on the back burner.") He's saying that the communists lost out firstly to democracy, and then later they lost out to Franco and his group. He's agreeing with something that Speer seems ...


10

The term would be used for people who were identifiable as members of the National Fascist Party or its subsidiary organisations. They tended to wear uniforms (to an extent that has no parallel in US politics) so they would be fairly easy to identify. Reading about the party will give you an idea of the opinions they were likely to hold, and act on, but ...


10

What I think happened here is a case of gradual exaggeration. Benito Mussolini, who started the Italian Fascist party, was a socialist. But he got kicked out of the socialist party for supporting Italian involvement in WWI. Since he was no longer in the socialist party, he started his own organization, which eventually became the fascist party. Although ...


10

The evidence from Franco's own statements strongly suggests that he did not, at least in public. In fact, from 1937, he specifically rejected the term for the Falangists, though he did concede that there were fascists within the movement. He also came close to using the word 'fascist' in a speech in 1938 but deleted it in the final version. In early 1937 (my ...


9

The answer to your question is: Yes. The Communist Party of Germany (KPD) referred to the Nazis as "Faschisten" long before the Nazis came to power. Their struggle against the regime (once the latter was in place) was called "antifaschistischer Widerstand" (anti-fascist resistance).


7

Points to be taken into account: In the months leading to the coup, there had been lots of political violence and terrorism. the workers that would be receiving weapons would not be under the government control, they would be managed by the trade unions/political parties they belonged to. With the enemy (as far as the government knew) isolated in Africa (...


7

According to that obscure source, Wikipedia, on 9 May 1936 King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Emmanuel_III_of_Italy1 Thus I guess that the only empire proclaimed by the Fascist government of Italy on 9 May 1936 was the Italian Empire of Ethiopia. It is unlikely that the Fascists would ...


6

Simply, a member of a fascist youth organization. They possibly had some uniform or a badge that would identify them. This is like a boy-scout in the USA.


6

The video description seems indeed misleading. The description for the Youtube video "Mussolini arrives in Germany after being liberated and being greeted by Hitler and other Nazi leaders." says: Former Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini arrives in Germany after his liberation on October 10, 1943 during World War II. A Nazi aircraft arrives ...


6

As pointed out by user LangLangC, both the question and the answers should really be from the point of view of educated and/or politically interested parts of Soviet society. Unfortunately I do not speak any Russian, so I can only answer this for educated and/or politically interested parts of German society. However, the Soviet Union did often take notice ...


6

It is currently still unclear to which extent and from what angle "any ridicule" might have come. Of course there was some ridicule towards those uniformed men, and of course that ridicule mainly came from political opponents. Uniforms of all kinds were still in much respect and fashion in Germany. Be it old Kaisers Rock (Prussian uniform, ...


5

In addition to other answers, it should be noted that the Germans were taking Spanish "Red" exiles to forced labour and extermination camps - notably Mauthausen - since 1940 and kept doing so until the end of the war. Clearly, that's not what could be expected if Hitler planed to be eventually in the same side of the "Reds" or make any use of them.


5

In general you're right that their role was greatly overblown by foreign and Republican media, in order to create the impression of a worldwide popular mobilization standing shoulder to shoulder with the Spanish Republic, which clearly was not the case. It's not fair to say that the International Brigades suffered, in an absolute sense, from lack of ...


5

IT didn't exist at the time, so technically the answer is zero, none. If you mean companies that are currently IT companies, and created and sold equipment explicitly for the purpose of use in the holocaust, that'd exclude any company outside German occupied Europe, Spain, Italy, Sweden, and Switzerland, as there simply was no trade during the holocaust ...


5

I answered the original question in Politics, https://politics.stackexchange.com/questions/362/did-the-socialist-and-the-fascist-party-share-the-electoral-programme-in-italy , albeit not having found the PSI program online. The programs, as Lennart Regebro's answer points, are very different, and the difference isn't merely literary, ie, they say different ...


5

Think of it this way. Contemporary to Mussolini and Hitler, every major European country had a "fascist" movement with a "national socialist" type ideology. Arrow Cross, Nasjonalsamling, Iron Guard, NSB, and so forth. All of them were variously "marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of ...


5

At a very high level economic systems can be classified into 4 groups by two criteria: public or private ownership, and central or decentralized control. Capitalism as commonly practiced in English-speaking democracies is typically private ownership with decentralized control. Capitalism as typically practiced in European democracies has private ownership ...


5

Theoretical conceptions of history as "grand events" with "meanings" are highly controversial amongst historians. Historians generally prefer to talk about processes causing further processes. In relation to WWII, the idea that WWII was fought in order to end racism or exterminationalist racism is rare. The defeat of the exterminationalist German ...


4

The Ku Klux Klan is a Christian terrorist group because they engaged in acts of terror. They burned down churches and executed people they considered harmful to their vision of Christian and American ideology. There still exist people who claim to be Christians and forbid interracial marriages. There still exist people who claim to be Christians and claim ...


4

Definitely not. Consider for instance, Austrian fascism. Austria is a country with totally similar culture and they got their fascist regime as well. Ironically it was hostile towards Nazi regime in Germany.


4

Short answer: the destruction and deprivation of World War I. In these circumstances, a decisive, confident leader with a quick and radical solution has much more chances for popular support.


4

Whilst there's an implication of strength through unity, it's not exactly what the Roman symbol means., which is a symbol of the office. Whilst it's suggested by the symbol, to make the leap from Fascism to Fasces is overly simplistic. Fascism draws it's ideological roots from the Fin de siècle zeitgeist of the late 19th Century. This period was ...


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