46

1. The surplus population could leave for underpopulated areas. It should be noted that villeins were not absolutely prohibited from leaving their manors. Rather, they were forbidden from leaving without permission from the lord, which was usually obtainable. For instance, manorial records often feature payments of chevage by landless sons who had left the ...


34

SHORT ANSWER Yes, there were, but information on inns and hostels before around 1300 is patchy at best and the evidence suggests that, for the early middle ages, travellers were often given board and lodging by locals, especially those higher up the social hierachy. After 1300, though, there are an increasing number of references to inns and hostels as well ...


20

Some of the early lines of Chaucer's prologue to The Canterbury Tales (circa 1386), tell of The Tabard inn in Southwark, just south of London Bridge. In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage To Caunterbury with ful devout corage, At nyght was come into that hostelrye Wel nyne and twenty in a compaignye Of sondry folk, ...


19

tl; dr No, Edward III paid a token tribute of £1,000 in 1333 (in expectation of receiving papal favours in return). In 1365, the English parliament debated the latest papal demand for tribute. They concluded that John’s original surrender of the realm to the Pope had been invalid, since it had lacked the assent of the bishops. From the perspective of the ...


16

SHORT ANSWER From the point of view of the English king and parliament, England stopped being a Papal fief in 1365. In 1365 parliament debated the latest papal request and concluded that John’s original surrender of the realm had been invalid since it had lacked the assent of the bishops. This marked the formal end to English recognition of the ...


15

The main ways are through improved field management, clearing woodland, and adoption of dairy. Crop rotation involves the evolution from two-field to three-field crop rotation starting in Charlemagne's time; followed by the adoption of four-field crop rotation starting in Belgium in the 18th century. The change to three-field crop rotation both reduces the ...


14

Just adding a little perspective: this question seems to originate along the lines of thinking in terms of the Malthusian catastrophe. But the "growing population" in the Middle Ages did not grow that much: The population levels of Europe during the Middle Ages can be roughly categorized: 400–600 (Late Antiquity): population decline 600–1000 (...


13

There were popular uprisings by English peasants (and other common folk) against the monarchy in the years preceding the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487). These rebellions give an indication of the political consciousness of some English peasants in the 15th century. The period from 1440-1480 was a time of economic depression in England known as the Great Slump....


12

This is really more like a whole list of questions... 1. Why was de Grailly granted this title, which was apparently used by only a few families, and not some other title? I think there's a bit of confusion here. The prefix of Captal was the traditional title for the lords of Buch. Edward III granted Jean III de Grailly the fief of Buch which came with it ...


11

It was in Italy that (initially) non hereditary titles of nobility were granted for military prowess. That's because these titles were not grounded in ownership of land.According to Wikipedia: "Though they had been used rarely, titles of nobility had certainly existed before circa 1300, but these were usually military ranks and not hereditary." This ...


10

Feudal lords have obligations to any liege from whom they hold fiefs in fealty. If a lord holds fiefs in two kingdoms, he is under feudal obligations to both sovereigns. This applies even if a vassal inherits a kingdom and become a king in his own right. For example, the Kings of England remained nominal feudal vassals to the Crown of France for their ...


9

First, note that feudalism is a term with no agreed-upon definition. At its strictest, it is limited to Europe, but at its broadest, it can even include Antebellum USA. For my answer, I'm taking a rather broad interpretation, that of a system of government that has the following features: a lord, vassals, and fiefs; the lord has nominal ownership of land but ...


9

In the United Kingdom, you could become a life peer. This title could not be inherited, it was limited to the life of the holder. In Germany, this concept was called Persönlicher Adel (personal nobility).


9

I offer this only because no one has yet provided a more informed answer. A few centuries earlier, writing in the early Eighth century, St Bede complained in his 'History of the English Church and People' [also sometimes called 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People'] that in his day people of influence were taking advantage of the exemption of ...


9

I will try to explain the complexity of this question using the Duchy of Normandy as an example. Duchy of Normandy As reported by Wikipedia in the Duke of Normandy page the duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles III in 911. with the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. Rollo receive the duchy in exchange for his ...


8

First, I'll try to answer the question "Who were the common folk in the 11th century". We are fortunate in England to have William I's great survey, Domesday Book, completed in 1086. Coverage is not uniform across the country, and some parts of England were not recorded by the Domesday survey at all, nevertheless it provides us with unparalleled insights ...


7

It would be incorrect to say, ' ... China and Japan used a completely opposite rationale in assigning the fiefdoms and were both well chosen for the country'. It did happen this way but for the Japanese, it developed as a result of a weakened central government. The classical Chinese Imperial system was based largely on kinship, and family tended to live ...


7

Henry the Lion (a Guelf) was the most powerful duke in the Holy Roman Empire, only second to the emperor himself. His downfall lastet from 1077–1081, when he was convicted of high treason against the emperor Barbarossa (Frederic I) and had in a court process his feudal lands greatly diminished; his imperial fiefdoms were all confiscated. The exact details ...


7

Looking at late 11th century England, the Domesday Book commissioned in 1085-6 by William I records a division: of England into Counties; Counties were the primary structural element of Domesday Book. There were 31 counties in Great Domesday. of Counties into Fiefs; ..., a fief being the conventional term for the manors held directly from the Crown ...


6

It would depend, first place, on a working definition of "feudalism". This is far from consensual, with several not very compatible "definitions" being used and abused without much intellectual effort to clarify the issue. Let's start from these commonsensical definitions, and by criticising them, attempt to reach some conclusions. One common idea is that "...


6

The President of France and the Bishop of Urgell are, ex officio, the co-princes of Andorra. These are non-hereditary and, as far as I can see, considered to be a part of the nobility.


6

China is a large country with even larger borders. Enemies are likely to come from far away, and they are likely to be people that are "unlike" you. So you want your "last line of defense," nearest the capital, to be manned by your closest friends, to give you the best chance to survive when the external enemy comes. On the other hand, a distant enemy can be ...


6

The crusade may have been incited by the testimonies of Peter the Hermit, but it was endorsed by Pope Urban the Second: ... Pope Urban the Second who presided at the assembly seconded the proposition of Peter the Hermit with so much force and eloquence that the whole council exclaimed unanimously "God wills it; let us depart!!" and from the same page:...


6

In 1553 John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, was executed for treason, with (Most? All? It's a little hard to trace.) his estate vacated to the crown. In 1572 the 4th Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard, was executed for treason and his lands and titles escheated to the crown. Much of this estate was later restored to his sons, and the title restored some ...


6

I cannot offer a complete answer but some relevant facts, many from my history degree or from having subsequently studied law. In theory, no one absolutely owned land but the king, everyone else if they had land 'held' it of the king. Hence the most complete from of land ownership that someone can have even today is 'freehold' i.e. held as a vassal of the ...


6

In practice, throughout most of Western Europe, the nobility rapidly descended into just that subset of tenants who owed allegiance directly to the monarch - the tenants-in-chief. Likewise, only those tenants-in-chief were generally liable for treason - those below the nobility being both too valuable and too numerous to hold accountable for the acts of ...


6

SHORT ANSWER: No. LONG ANSWER: Every manor in Catholic and Latin medieval Europe had a manor house of some sort, except during intervals, possibly long intervals, between a manor house being destroyed and a replacement being built. If someone was the lord of two or more manors, obviously he could not live in two or more manor houses at the same time. ...


5

Consider also the case of Frederick I of Prussia. Inheriting the Margravate of Brandenburg (within the Holy Roman Empire) and the Duchy of Prussia (outside the Empire, actually only East Prussia) as Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia in a personal union, Frederick negotiated with Emperor Leopold I for the right to crown himself as King of Prussia, allegedly in ...


5

In War Karl der Kahle wirklich kahl? Historische Beinamen und was dahinter steckt (Was Charles the Bald really bald? Historical epithets and their background), a book by Reinhard Lebe, the author quotes (p. 115 et seq.) from the writings of Burgundian chroniclers -- de la Marche, Chastellain, and de Commynes. Olivier de la Marche: Charles is hot-...


5

Perhaps you're talking about Rollo, while swearing feudal allegiance to the King Charles II of France with the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte (911): "According to legend, when required to kiss the foot of King Charles, as a condition of the treaty, he refused to perform so great a humiliation, and when Charles extended his foot to Rollo, Rollo ordered one ...


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