27

Assuming you are talking about the Constitutional Convention... It wasn't a "secret", but I suppose it is conveniently ignored by a lot of people that there were extensive records kept of the deliberations. They were delivered by the convention secretary to the convention "president" (George Washington, of course). Congress ordered them all printed in 1819. ...


22

No. On the one side, we have Hamilton denouncing Cromwell in the Federalist Papers No. 21: Without a guaranty the assistance to be derived from the Union in repelling those domestic dangers which may sometimes threaten the existence of the State constitutions, must be renounced. Usurpation may rear its crest in each State, and trample upon the ...


21

The question is poorly stated. The Founding Fathers were not all of one mind on many subjects— the Federalists saw danger in direct democracy, whereas the Anti-Federalists did not. Additionally, popular usage of terms like "democracy" or "republic" is quite different from a political scientist's use of such terms— indeed, quite a lot of ...


12

In 2011, the New York Historical Society acquired the Constitutional Convention notebooks of John Lansing, Jr., a New York delegate to the 1787 Philadelphia Convention. According to this announcement: The delegates’ vow of secrecy, which banned the taking of notes for publication, limited the amount of material created documenting the Convention ...


12

Yes, Puritans supported a state church. Ministers' salaries were paid by taxes levied on all residents of the colonies. Colonial meetinghouses, also built at the taxpayers' expense, were used for both town business and religious worship. Participation in political life was dependent on one's religious background, as voting rights were restricted to members ...


12

There are isolated instances of flag desecration in America's colonial and revolutionary past, but the perpetrators were not especially influential. Although a scattering of flag desecration incidents speckled American history prior to the twentieth century, none of them aroused any form of institutionalized legal response until shortly before 1900. ...


10

The material aspects of life for slaves at Mount Vernon--things like their quarters, clothing, food--were very similar to the way things were done on other large plantations in 18th century Virginia (places like Monticello or Sabine Hall). In the case of infants, mothers at Mount Vernon were given a new blanket at the time of the birth and baby clothes of ...


8

This touches upon a really fascinating cluster of debates in the history of the late colonial period and the early republic. There are likely many publications on this but it forms one of the central issues in: Aristide R. Zolberg A Nation by Design: Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America I'll focus on Zolberg's take. The book opens a discussion ...


7

King Clovis the I has been called "the first Frenchman", but he was more or less ignored for long periods of French history: In April, President Chirac instructed the government to set up a national committee to mark the 1,500th anniversary of the baptism of Clovis. According to historians, the only other French celebration of the baptism of Clovis ...


6

One of the first suggestions for electing the President was a direct vote. However, it was quickly and resoundingly rejected. The basic problem with having a popular vote was that it didn't take into account the differences in how how Southern society was organized compared to the rest of the country. In particular, slavery. In most states the only people ...


6

I think we can adress one issue rather easily, concerning Did the founding fathers have a lack of respect for the natives A very simple answer would be to look at how relations with the Native American Tribes were handled: Treaties. from here: In referring to the constitutional grant of treaty-making powers to the chief executive—with the "advice ...


6

This was (to the best of my knowledge) a comment that Jefferson made to Madison, and I believe he was referring to revolutions, not civil wars. Jefferson was at the time strongly under the influence of the French Revolution, which he thought was a marvelous thing. Madison pushed back on Jefferson, and he recanted from the position. I regret that I can't ...


5

Russia's Boris Yeltsin is widely disrespected in Russia. According to the questionnaire conducted by the request of IA Regnum in Voronezh in January 2012, 56% of the participants consider that he brought more harm than good. About 31% assessed that there was about equal amount of harm and benefit, and only 9% said that he brought more benefit than evil. ...


5

Perhaps Ataturk is an example. Nowadays, his legacy is very much questioned in Turkey.


5

Yes, absolutely. The Federalist /Anti-Federalist controversy went far beyond the issues you cite. The founders feared a tyrannical central government - the writings of Jefferson, Madison and Monroe are particularly clear on this point. The 9th and 10th were designed to limit the growth of the government. Hamilton wanted a strong, effective government. ...


4

In Canada, Sir John A. MacDonald is today often derided as drunk and corrupt, despite his many accomplishments and notwithstanding the glowing tributes in those links. I myself am amazed that he found a compromise acceptable to the five founding provinces, and then still managed to finagle British Columbia in as well; but not all Canadians share that opinion....


4

Short Answer: Jefferson was anti-Jacksonian. Madison was neither Jacksonian nor anti-Jacksonian. Longer Answer: By 1828, every serious contender for the presidency was a member of the Republican Party, so the supporters of Jackson called themselves “Friends of Jackson” or “Jacksonians” to differentiate themselves from the "Administration Republicans" or "...


3

Thomas Jefferson in France, 1787. Source: Study.com - Thomas Jefferson as the Ambassador to France Q: How did Thomas Jefferson's time in France influence his views of women? A: Evidently, not much Thomas Jefferson was in France from 1784 - 1789, first as Minister Plenipotentiary (sent by the Congress of the Confederation) along with John Adams and Benjamin ...


3

Pedro I of Brazil is not venerated neither hated in Brazil. It roots in the sui generis history of independence of Brazil, and personally of his founder and liberator. Summarizing: Pedro I was born in Lisbon, Portugal, 1798. The Portuguese Court transferred to Rio de Janeiro in 1808, running away of Napoleon invasion of Iberian Peninsula. It created the ...


3

George Washington had in total about 300 slaves at the height of his slave-owning career, but only about 150 were directly his, the others being indirectly his since they were acquired through family connections and so on. I think Martha Washington brought many or maybe most of them to the marriage--a lot of George's wealth (land, etc.) came from marrying ...


2

I've deferred answering this because it is a complicated subject, and I can't find the right sources. My impression is that the founding fathers didn't share a coherent opinion on the subject; different states and their respective founding fathers had different opinions. However yesterday, I heard the following paragraph read aloud He has endeavoured to ...


2

Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome, is an example of sort. He was of course always glorified as the founder of the city, and even divinized, but at the same time he was a king, with some clear tyrannical tendencies, and during all the republic, and even at the beginning of the empire, this was enough for him to be considered as an example not to follow. ...


2

Absolutely. Pauline Maier "Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution" is an excellent source for both of these questions. With respect to your first question about economic differences, consult any discussion of the Bank of the United States, the arguments between Hamilton (who argued for a commercial country) and Jefferson (who argued for a ...


2

You are likely thinking of The Federalist Papers (Wikipedia here), Beginning on October 27, 1787 the Federalist Papers were first published in the New York press under the signature of "Publius". These papers are generally considered to be one of the most important contributions to political thought made in America. The papers were actually written by ...


2

The whole area of Jefferson and his stance on slavery is hotly debated (and given Jefferson's role in the founding of America one that can rile people up) so I'm going to try not to be too controversial here. Jefferson was indeed quite forceful in his words regarding slavery in Notes on the State of Virginia, however his stance in that text isn't exactly ...


1

Extemely short and simple answer: No, because for one thing, Cromwell eventually set himself up as dictator, the "Lord-Protector", which was simply a title for the person in charge. He first created a non-elected "representative" system before that, where the people in that system were simply nominated but not elected. In other words, he was very much like ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible