75

Short answer George Washington relied on the translation of a mercenary he knew well and who had previously acted as his translator, Jacob Van Braam, and did not think he was signing a document in which (the French later claimed) he admitted assassinating a French military officer. Further, the claim that the officer killed had been on a diplomatic mission, ...


35

Louis X's decree in 1315 did not abolish slavery. That's a historical myth. First, the ordonnance did not say anything about slaves, and explicitly mentioned that it was applicable to persons "en lien de servitude", which were serfs. Second, the king did not just give freedom out of magnanimity, reminding that enfranchisement could only happen at &...


19

Although this question probably can't be resolved without years of comparative study, a quick indication of the answer can be done by looking at the current GDP of the countries as a reasonable measure of "stability and success". The cases are also very different between different continents and times, as colonization changed a lot during the ...


17

I don't have details for 1792, but the following are from James' Naval History for January 1793 (so probably good enough to get an idea of the relative strengths of the fleets). These cover the principal fleets at the main naval bases. At Brest Ready or fitting for Sea 1 120-gun ship of the line 2 110-gun ships of the line 4 80-gun ships of the line 12 74-...


13

There is in fact a small PDF available online which attempts to answer this question through detailed study of a small area of the South Pacific. The islands of Vanuatu were administered jointly by the British and French. The author finds that "political indicators are in favor of British administration, but economic indicators are in favor of French ...


13

The French revolution was truly revolutionary, it replaced the monarchy with a regime based on popular support. A king had to hire mercenaries, the revolutionary regime could draft patriotic citizens in a levee en masse. (Sure, not all draftees were entirely enthusiastic. But it made a notable difference.) In some parts of Europe, anti-monarchist patriots ...


12

The French Revolution was more empowering than debilitating. Put another way, it awoke a sleeping giant. At the time of the Revolution, France was the second most populous country in Europe (after Russia), and potentially the richest and strongest. The reason it failed to live up to this potential was the burdens placed on the French people by the various ...


9

There is something to BrotherJack's answer but just considering it an “irrational” urge for greatness and prestige is a little short-sighted. A few other factors: France had a huge colonial empire, not only Indochina. Defending its claim to Indochina was also a way to show it did not intend to give up all this. It's still debatable whether colonies in ...


9

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


8

as all battles in the period were decided by one side giving way and giving up the fight by running or fleeing, the men were not robots and morale was a very important factor and it soldiers failing to be steady and press forward or whole ground was a regular occurrence casualties in battle were often not particularly huge, the volleys often rapidly ...


8

Found information in the JSTOR article France's Middle Eastern Ambitions, the Sykes-Picot Negotiations, and the Oil Fields of Mosul, 1915-1918*: Georges Clemenceau ceded Mosul during a Sunday conversation at the French Embassy in London on December 1st 1918. Possibly for one or more of these three reasons: Removal of a source of friction with their British ...


8

This poses an extraordinarily simplistic question. The histories of different 'colonies' are so utterly varied in their type and circumstances that it would be almost impossible to find useful examples for a contrasting case study. And what would be the point anyway? 'Colonies' which did particularly well, both before and after independence, are ones where ...


7

The first problem is that you're reading a textbook. Textbooks are not ways in which historical research is reported; they're primarily teaching tools and are highly criticised and considered bad for teaching in some systems. Your textbook gives us some clues about how the authors are using "class," a complex theoretical tool. as Marx stressed…middle-...


7

Napoleon abolished the revolutionary calendar in 1805. It was never very popular. Catholics disliked having their saints' days dropped, and having a day of rest every 10 days instead of every seven probably made it a tough sell. The Cult of the Supreme Being never caught on. Much of France's population remained Catholic during this time, and many of the ...


5

The striking thing was that France and Austria had been political rivals going back to the time of Francis I (France) and Charles V (Austria). Until the mid 18th century. After winning the 100 Years' War, France became the strongest power in western Europe. Spain and Austria (counting the Holy Roman Empire) were two and three, and when Princess Juana of ...


5

The French Convention decreed a levée en masse on 23 August 1793 to resist the anti-French coalition: From this moment until such time as its enemies shall have been driven from the soil of the Republic, all Frenchmen are in permanent requisition for the services of the armies. The young men shall fight; the married men shall forge arms and transport ...


4

France was just being a good ally. A number of formerly Dutch holdings had been captured by Britain, and recaptured by France, who turned these islands back to the Dutch. France had been worried about the Anglo-Dutch alliance since at least the end of the 17th century. This was the first time that the Dutch allied with France against England, rather than ...


3

The wikipedia page includes an extensive reference list of further reading: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution#Further_reading Here is the reading list from USC's class The Age of the French Revolution: Jeremy Popkin, A Short History of the French Revolution Laura Mason and Tracy Rizzo, eds., The French Revolution: A Document Collection Jean-...


3

To be honest, I don't know the chances, but here are the following facts, hopefully they give good picture on topic: The continent was spotted by various people before James Cook - collected evidences are from the related wikipedia page's sources: K.G. McIntyre (1977) The Secret Discovery of Australia; Portuguese discoveries 200 years before Captain Cook. ...


3

As someone who studied in Indonesia (former colony of Dutch) and Singapore (former colony of British), I can say very well the difference lies in the education investment made by the British. This simple slides (slide 21) shows very clearly the investment made by the British in their crown colony: The Dutch, however, did not do the same for its colonies (i....


2

The introduction of conscription was a direct result of the dissolution of the monarchy. All the other monarchies saw France as a threat to their way of order, as they feared similar uprisings. In March 1793, France was at war with Austria, Prussia, Spain, Britain, Piedmont and the United Provinces. A professional army was woefully inadequate for this, in ...


2

In typical European armies, troops were trained on a conscription basis. The training is a mix of the general background of the soldiers and what was expected of them in a battle. However, there were also volunteer armies and large-scale mercenaries, but mostly we're talking conscription. In a European conscription army, men would be called or pressed ...


2

An "éphémère" is something that was "ephemeral," and disappeared quickly or early. France's "American" colonies fall into this category. These had only 80,000 settlers in 1750, even after 100 years of haphazard "colonization," which is one reason why the French lost the French and Indian War (the 13 colonies had 1.6 million settlers). A "comptoir" is ...


2

Of the three countries, Britain, France, and Germany, France was the least dynamic economically in the late 19th century, and hence the least likely to hearken back to Rome or other classical civilizations.So yes, there were intellectual movements in France but they were in no way comparable to those in England. Put bluntly, they had the least to celebrate ...


2

In essence, the system of mandates was a compromise between the Allies’ desire to retain the former colonies of Germany and Turkey, and their prior acceptance of President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, which effectively declared that annexing territory had not been the aim of the allies in the war. The allies had issued their Conditional Acceptance of ...


1

Complex question. Resources. France was large, rich and Populous country. Around 40 million to Austria's 20 million or Prussia's 10 Million, Russian was about the same 40 million, but well behind in wealth. And France was richer than these countries. And once France had established an empire, French advantages increased. Politics and Diplomacy. For a lot ...


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