21

The reason for the meeting was finance. I don't have that research to hand, but France was absolutely screwed for finance. They had a structural deficit and had tried everything (including inventing entirely new and fantastic monetary systems, firing successive finance ministers, etc.) There wasn't a mechanism to levy new taxes or to change the allocation ...


21

They got their weapons from the Hôtel national des Invalides, which were stormed by a Parisian mob earlier the same day. Much of the armaments previously stored there had been removed just two days earlier, but the revolutionaries still managed to acquire ~28,000-32,000 (sources vary) muskets hidden in the cellars and the church. They also found several ...


20

Acknowledgement: this answer owes a debt to some of the comments posted under the question and under this answer, especially Kimchilover. There is conclusive evidence that all three images are from after the 1789 revolution and strong evidence that at least one was made no later than 1834. However, there appears to be conflicting evidence on a more precise ...


18

Let's split that 20 year period up into four segments and address the key factors at play in each one: 1792-1799 (approximately Valmy through Napoleon becoming First Consul) 1800-1802 (approximately Heliopolis through Peace of Amiens) 1803-1805 (Camp at Boulogne) 1805-1812 Valmy through First Consul: The French are winning consistently through this period, ...


18

That is Avignon, part of the papal states. In 1791 the French annexed it. The map below shows the extent of the papal states in 1700:


16

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


16

That section seems to have been added without any supporting citation by an anonymous user on 1 November 2019. Given France was a Catholic country in which polygamy was illegal at that time, I'd say it looks like simple vandalism of the Wikipedia page. The Council of Trent in 1563, expressly opposed polygamy and concubinage: If any one saith, that it is ...


15

It seems that a loyalist by the name of Pierre-Louis Olivier Desclozeaux, who lived next to the plot of land where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were buried, wrote down exactly where the two graves were and then bought the plot of land when it came up for sale years later. He then offered the land and his note of where the two were buried to King Louis ...


14

French historian Sophie Wahnich, on the subject of 'L’étranger et la révolution française' (Foreigners and the French Revolution), says that: Il faut bien entendre que la notion de nationalité n'existait pas au cœur de la Révolution française. Ni le mot nationalité, ni le mot citoyenneté n’étaient employés à l’époque. Les hommes et les femmes ...


13

As far as I know, the main issues in French foreign policy of the period were: Friendship with USA, with which France shared common ideological ground. In particular, the United States Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution and United States Bill of Rights much influenced the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and ...


13

The French revolution was truly revolutionary, it replaced the monarchy with a regime based on popular support. A king had to hire mercenaries, the revolutionary regime could draft patriotic citizens in a levee en masse. (Sure, not all draftees were entirely enthusiastic. But it made a notable difference.) In some parts of Europe, anti-monarchist patriots ...


12

One might argue that secularism brought about the French Revolution; not all correlation is causation. Mike Duncan's Revolutions podcast covers the role of the church in the revolution fairly well. (at least at a high/brief level). There are a couple of factors worth mentioning. The French Revolution wasn't designed; it was a runaway cart, heading down a ...


12

First, review the reasons for the French Revolution - pre-eminent among those reasons is that the French state was bankrupt. It could not pay bills or collect taxes. This was not a temporary problem, but a structural problem. See Revolutions Podcast (I linked to one episode, but strongly recommend the rest) is an excellent source. The French government was ...


12

The French Revolution was more empowering than debilitating. Put another way, it awoke a sleeping giant. At the time of the Revolution, France was the second most populous country in Europe (after Russia), and potentially the richest and strongest. The reason it failed to live up to this potential was the burdens placed on the French people by the various ...


11

The French navy suffered considerably due to the French revolution. Having finished the American War of Independence on something approaching a high (comparatively speaking), the French navy suffered a reverse that it never fully recovered from until well after the finish of the Napoleonic Wars. Like most other European navies of the time, the officers ...


10

There was a set of reforms introduced by Napoleon into conquered countries The law based on Napoleonic code. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. The code declared presumption of innocence, competitive trial and right to an attorney. The code prohibited ...


10

In keeping with your question, I'll leave out instances of human body part use for purely utilitarian reasons (organ donation) and focus on things done for symbolic reasons (dehumanizing, revenge, magic, etc), especially with reference to victims of political persecution or on the losing end. Do correct me if I've interpreted your questions wrongly :) ...


10

Robespierre was of the opinion that the best way to ensure the success of the revolution was to execute all the enemies of the revolution. A tyrannical position that he, as so many others, justified with nonsensical slogans. The government in a revolution is the despotism of liberty against tyranny. -- Robespierre, 1794 Such policy will soon end up ...


10

Like most internet “quotes”, this is actually fake. But Diderot said something quite similar in his poem: “Les Éleuthéromanes” : J'en atteste les temps; j'en appelle à tout âge; Jamais au public avantage L'homme n'a franchement sacrifié ses droits; S'il osait de son cœur n'écouter que la voix, Changeant tout à coup de langage, ...


9

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


9

The League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters (Sublime Perfect Masters / Society of Perfect Sublime Masters) was a conspiratorial and revolutionary society, one of the Carbonari groups. It was created in 1818 by Filippo Buonarroti and it operated as a Masonic Lodge. Its headquarters were in Turin and its immediate goal was independence from Austria. Its ...


9

According to Voltaire and the Century of Light By Alfred Owen Aldridge, (page 400) it was Franklin brought his namesake and grandson of eight years, Benjamin Franklin Bache to meet Voltaire and, accordingly, requested a benediction for the little boy. In the midst of twenty witnesses, Voltaire, according to his own recollection, pronounced the simple ...


8

Novels are not typically accorded a high status as a primary source by historians because they have a purpose other than the truthful representation of the past as it was, as recreated from the documentary records of the past. Novels are incapable of "accuracy" in this sense. Similarly: plays and movies are incapable of historical accuracy. Novels may ...


8

New World Encyclopedia: [in 19th century Germany]... victim being decapitated either face up or down depending on how the executioner predicted they would react to the sight of the machine The strongest support for aristocrats being guillotined face-up comes from the joke: A commoner, an aristocrat, and a scholar (or engineer - but not a ...


8

The Reign of Terror resulted in an estimated 40,000 executions, primarily landed nobility, courtiers and clergy. Many upper class French emigrated to other countries. A typical example is that of Pierre du Pont, founder of the chemical company E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Being a member of the lesser nobility, the revolution never got around to ...


7

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first use of the word "van" in print to refer to "A covered vehicle chiefly employed for the conveyance of goods" was in 1829. These were not motor vehicles as we think of vans today, just horse-drawn wagons. See the Wikipedia page for Pantechnicon van for information and a photo of a particular type of English ...


7

As for the symbolism of the white color, Wikipedia has a couple of explanations : White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French colour" by Lafayette. White was added to the "revolutionary" colors of the militia cockade to "nationalise" the design, thus creating the tricolour cockade. And also The colours ...


7

I found another hint in Histoire du dimanche: de 1700 à nos jours by Robert Beck page 154 on bottom. See the following google books link. Le surplus en travail que provoque le rythme décadaire, pourrait également constituer une raison du rejet dont le nouveau temps est la victime. [...] Les instigateur des lois sur l'observation des décadis de l'an VI ...


7

This question makes no sense until a "religion" is unambiguously defined. And this is difficult. Some definitions are so broad that according to these definitions, there is no irreligious society at all. For example a remarkable book by Vercor, Humans or animals? (one of the places where I have seen a general definition of religion) includes "burial of the ...


7

Lint seems to have a number of potential uses in the period: As tinder for starting fires. In the treatment of wounds. As wadding for guns (cannon and muskets).


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