34

Revolution and Power As Lenin famously said, the key question of any revolution is the question of Power. Translating it into the vernacular for the benefit of the unindoctrinated: a revolution is done for the sole purpose of gaining power. All talk about giving land to peasants or factories to workers is just that - talk, the people who are actually leading ...


21

They got their weapons from the Hôtel national des Invalides, which were stormed by a Parisian mob earlier the same day. Much of the armaments previously stored there had been removed just two days earlier, but the revolutionaries still managed to acquire ~28,000-32,000 (sources vary) muskets hidden in the cellars and the church. They also found several ...


21

The reason for the meeting was finance. I don't have that research to hand, but France was absolutely screwed for finance. They had a structural deficit and had tried everything (including inventing entirely new and fantastic monetary systems, firing successive finance ministers, etc.) There wasn't a mechanism to levy new taxes or to change the allocation ...


20

Let's split that 20 year period up into four segments and address the key factors at play in each one: 1792-1799 (approximately Valmy through Napoleon becoming First Consul) 1800-1802 (approximately Heliopolis through Peace of Amiens) 1803-1805 (Camp at Boulogne) 1805-1812 Valmy through First Consul: The French are winning consistently through this period, ...


20

Acknowledgement: this answer owes a debt to some of the comments posted under the question and under this answer, especially Kimchilover. There is conclusive evidence that all three images are from after the 1789 revolution and strong evidence that at least one was made no later than 1834. However, there appears to be conflicting evidence on a more precise ...


18

That is Avignon, part of the papal states. In 1791 the French annexed it. The map below shows the extent of the papal states in 1700:


17

Revolutions create instability. Edmund Burke said the following after the French Revolution: one of the first and most leading principles on which the commonwealth and the laws are consecrated is lest the temporary possessors and life-renters in it, unmindful of what they have received from their ancestors, or of what is due to their posterity, should act ...


16

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


16

That section seems to have been added without any supporting citation by an anonymous user on 1 November 2019. Given France was a Catholic country in which polygamy was illegal at that time, I'd say it looks like simple vandalism of the Wikipedia page. The Council of Trent in 1563, expressly opposed polygamy and concubinage: If any one saith, that it is ...


15

It seems that a loyalist by the name of Pierre-Louis Olivier Desclozeaux, who lived next to the plot of land where Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were buried, wrote down exactly where the two graves were and then bought the plot of land when it came up for sale years later. He then offered the land and his note of where the two were buried to King Louis ...


15

Like most internet “quotes”, this is actually fake. But Diderot said something quite similar in his poem: “Les Éleuthéromanes” : J'en atteste les temps; j'en appelle à tout âge; Jamais au public avantage L'homme n'a franchement sacrifié ses droits; S'il osait de son cœur n'écouter que la voix, Changeant tout à coup de langage, ...


14

French historian Sophie Wahnich, on the subject of 'L’étranger et la révolution française' (Foreigners and the French Revolution), says that: Il faut bien entendre que la notion de nationalité n'existait pas au cœur de la Révolution française. Ni le mot nationalité, ni le mot citoyenneté n’étaient employés à l’époque. Les hommes et les femmes ...


13

The French revolution was truly revolutionary, it replaced the monarchy with a regime based on popular support. A king had to hire mercenaries, the revolutionary regime could draft patriotic citizens in a levee en masse. (Sure, not all draftees were entirely enthusiastic. But it made a notable difference.) In some parts of Europe, anti-monarchist patriots ...


13

Old system destroyed, new system not yet established When you observe human behavior in large groups, you will notice a large amount of inertia. Let's take for example British political system. They have a monarch, with mostly ceremonial duties. They have a parliament, elected with first pass the post voting system, and very powerful Prime Minister. This ...


12

One might argue that secularism brought about the French Revolution; not all correlation is causation. Mike Duncan's Revolutions podcast covers the role of the church in the revolution fairly well. (at least at a high/brief level). There are a couple of factors worth mentioning. The French Revolution wasn't designed; it was a runaway cart, heading down a ...


12

The French navy suffered considerably due to the French revolution. Having finished the American War of Independence on something approaching a high (comparatively speaking), the French navy suffered a reverse that it never fully recovered from until well after the finish of the Napoleonic Wars. Like most other European navies of the time, the officers ...


12

First, review the reasons for the French Revolution - pre-eminent among those reasons is that the French state was bankrupt. It could not pay bills or collect taxes. This was not a temporary problem, but a structural problem. See Revolutions Podcast (I linked to one episode, but strongly recommend the rest) is an excellent source. The French government was ...


12

The French Revolution was more empowering than debilitating. Put another way, it awoke a sleeping giant. At the time of the Revolution, France was the second most populous country in Europe (after Russia), and potentially the richest and strongest. The reason it failed to live up to this potential was the burdens placed on the French people by the various ...


10

Robespierre was of the opinion that the best way to ensure the success of the revolution was to execute all the enemies of the revolution. A tyrannical position that he, as so many others, justified with nonsensical slogans. The government in a revolution is the despotism of liberty against tyranny. -- Robespierre, 1794 Such policy will soon end up ...


10

In keeping with your question, I'll leave out instances of human body part use for purely utilitarian reasons (organ donation) and focus on things done for symbolic reasons (dehumanizing, revenge, magic, etc), especially with reference to victims of political persecution or on the losing end. Do correct me if I've interpreted your questions wrongly :) ...


10

There was a set of reforms introduced by Napoleon into conquered countries The law based on Napoleonic code. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs should go to the most qualified. The code declared presumption of innocence, competitive trial and right to an attorney. The code prohibited ...


9

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


9

The League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters (Sublime Perfect Masters / Society of Perfect Sublime Masters) was a conspiratorial and revolutionary society, one of the Carbonari groups. It was created in 1818 by Filippo Buonarroti and it operated as a Masonic Lodge. Its headquarters were in Turin and its immediate goal was independence from Austria. Its ...


9

According to Voltaire and the Century of Light By Alfred Owen Aldridge, (page 400) it was Franklin brought his namesake and grandson of eight years, Benjamin Franklin Bache to meet Voltaire and, accordingly, requested a benediction for the little boy. In the midst of twenty witnesses, Voltaire, according to his own recollection, pronounced the simple ...


9

It's actually very simple. So long as the target of a revolution/movement exists, the solution remains very theoretical: "solve the problem". During this time, everyone in the movement generally agrees with everyone else. However, once the revolution/movement succeeds in obtaining all or part of its goal, solutions have to become concrete and ...


8

Novels are not typically accorded a high status as a primary source by historians because they have a purpose other than the truthful representation of the past as it was, as recreated from the documentary records of the past. Novels are incapable of "accuracy" in this sense. Similarly: plays and movies are incapable of historical accuracy. Novels may ...


8

New World Encyclopedia: [in 19th century Germany]... victim being decapitated either face up or down depending on how the executioner predicted they would react to the sight of the machine The strongest support for aristocrats being guillotined face-up comes from the joke: A commoner, an aristocrat, and a scholar (or engineer - but not a scientist! the ...


8

The Reign of Terror resulted in an estimated 40,000 executions, primarily landed nobility, courtiers and clergy. Many upper class French emigrated to other countries. A typical example is that of Pierre du Pont, founder of the chemical company E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. Being a member of the lesser nobility, the revolution never got around to ...


8

General Jean-Charles Pichegru' defection to the Royalist cause appears to have been down to disillusion with the republican movement, coupled with a hefty financial incentive. Pichegru, though, favoured a constitutional monarchy rather than a return to an absolutist one. Pichegru had made clear his shift away from the Jacobins when he aligned himself with ...


8

The Tour de Croy was completed in 1765, according to the Chatillon site page Histoire de la ville. Construction took place in stages, starting in 1763. The height was eventually 50 feet in total. It seems to have functioned as an observatory from the start, and it is referred to as la Tour de M. le Duc de Croy on page 61 of Histoire de l'Academie royale des ...


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