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82

Many churches in Europe (not just Germany) were built centuries ago, when the church was by far the most important and prestigious building in any city. Building them took decades, sometimes even centuries. For quite some time, no other building project in any city could possibly contend with its church. And even if you could, why would you? One, you would ...


48

This is a quite convoluted story. But in short: the common story is a bit too short for correctness. The Versailles Treaty was quite bad on many accounts, but it was not really responsible alone for what happened to aspirin. The classical account is this: In 1915, Aspirin manufactured in tablet form became available without a prescription. As soon as the ...


39

During the Cold War, there were always doubts if extended deterrence would hold. Would the US put Washington at risk to defend or avenge Bonn or Frankfurt? So NATO needed powerful signals that they would stand together, even at the expense of operational efficiency. Compare the multinational battalions in the Baltics today -- those cannot stop a Russian ...


20

Magnus Hirschfeld, a researcher on sexuality and early advocates for gay rights amassed a huge body of research on homosexuality and transsexuality. In '33, he was heading and institute at the Charité University in Berlin. The Archive of his Institute was burned completely, a huge body of research was lost. This did not happen "just" because he was jewish, ...


18

The maximum building hights are determined by each city (or as in Berlin possible each City District). In Berlin the first Bebauungsplan (Building Plan) of 1862 regulated standard street widths of 22 meters and a few years later a general Traufhöhe (hight of roof base) of 5 floors between 21 and 22 meters and a court yard (Hof) of 3.50 meters were ...


16

As DevSolar noted in his answer, churches generally are tall, their spires even higher, but to answer Q Why in most German places is the church the tallest building? it might suffice to say just: No. Church spires are now usually not the tallest structures in most German places. That is an assumption quite far from visible experience on location or from ...


16

1) 1897 The earliest reference I could find is Christoph von Tiedemann on p. 42 of Persönliche Erinnerungen an den Fürsten Bismarck (S. Hirze, 1898, link) based on a 1897 talk: "ich habe nicht schlafen können, ich habe die ganze Nacht gehaßt", sagte er mir eines Morgens Von Tiedemann knew von Bismarck personally and spent a lot of time with him. The ...


16

Yes, at least one member of the Nazi party is known to have been horrified by the actions of the Japanese Imperial Army. It depends on what you understand by the (plural) term the Nazis I would, in this historical context, understand this as the Government or leadership of Germany or Japan both of which, together with Italy, were allies with a common ...


15

That can mean two different things: A call to relocate the parliament seat from provisional Bonn to the old capital: like it was done after 1990. Small problem with that: The Reichstag was in ruins. So, did they want to build a new house of parliament as well? Likely not in this context. West-Berlin was just a Bundesland, not the capital, and the allies ...


15

As your article itself states: On the record, the Germany government only admits to being part of what is officially termed a "nuclear sharing agreement." In essence, the nuclear sharing agreement provides for member states of the military alliance without nuclear weapons to partake in planning and training for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO. ...


14

I visited East Berlin and Dresden in 1978 with my mother and sister ( I was 18 at the time) from the USA. We had to obtain visas many months prior to our visit from a travel agent who specialized in this. When we arrived at each of our destinations we had to register with the city officials (listing where we were staying and for how long). As I recall we ...


11

tl;dr: Initiative. This is the same reason Stalin kept ordering counterattacks in 1941 and 1942 - because it is the only way to stop (or at least slow down) an advancing overwhelming force, because in a (counter)offensive you select the time and place of the battle and can (try to) do it to your advantage. I understand that this sounds counterintuitive, ...


9

This is a call for solidarity after the building of the Wall in Berlin. In the 1950's the Bundestag met in Berlin, expressing the political will, that Berlin (West) was a part of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). After the Khrushchev's Berlin ultimatum of the 27th of November 1958 this was discontinued. The shown signs Bundestag nach BERLIN are ...


8

That is indeed quite probably the case. Fritz Jacob Haber was for example Half brother of Elsbeth (Else) Caroline Freyhahn; Helene Weigert and Frieda Glücksmann While Frieda Glücksmann died in Jerusalem 1946, her daughter Hilda Hildegard Kuttner (Glücksmann) died March 02, 1943 (38), Oświęcim (Auschwitz) And on Yad Vashem this is confirmed. The ...


8

Short answer: there is no short answer. It depends on a lot of factors, legal opinions, and definitions. We might look at an initial agreement, and get a number. But that number is difficult to translate into real-world value. And what exactly was included or excluded by that one agreement is, as evidenced by this very question, still a matter of dispute. ...


8

Short Asnwer: In my opinion, it is probable that you saw the Leechkirche on Rittergasse with a Teutonic Knights cross painted on the doors, instead of a garrison church of a hypothetical German army garrison in Graz during Nazi rule. Long answer: Graz in Austria was part of the Duchy of Styria in the Kingdom of Germany in the Holy Roman Empire until 1806, ...


7

Building up is expensive. Except in high-density urban areas with very high land values, erecting tall buildings is not economical. In most places around the world, it will be cheaper to build two 20-story buildings than one 40-story building. The vast majority of German towns and villages do not have the economic pressure needed to make building up ...


7

I'm looking for rational motives from a military standpoint It might be a lot more "rational" if you apply a different kind of logic. We like to think of military strategy of something that is a task in optimizing all the resources you have to gain an acceptable outcome, where one of the acceptable outcomes might be honorable defeat and maybe capture. ...


7

The whole premise needs to be reversed. The entire question is extraordinarily broad and potentially encompasses developments over 800 years and the entire globe. What was Prussia, exactly, and what were "Prussians", and when did anyone call themselves "Prussian"? Those are the subquestions presented in the question body. But that is peripheral to ...


7

By combining the three tables, of known Me262 losses; claims by USAAF; and claims by RAF, in Foreman, Me 262 Combat Diary (1990), assuming that the German numbers are correct, and also that all the dates are as stated, I have obtained the following statistics. In some cases both USAAF & RAF claim the same Me262, and in one case it is not clear which type ...


7

This a caricature (05:30) bei Vicco von Bülow, pen name Loriot. The title says "Bundesbürger 1960", and means 'West-German citizen 1960'. This man makes a Gratwanderung blindfolded. Gratwanderung being an idiom, meaning not only alpine hiking, but also being in a precarious situation, in which no deviations are 'advisable', if not incredibly dangerous. But ...


7

False sense of security Mainstream wisdom during Cold War was that if ever that war becomes hot, Soviets (and Warsaw Pact in general) are bound to invade Western Europe, before substantial reinforcements could come from CONUS . Soviet military did have various contingency plans, some were almost purely offensive ones like 7 days to river Rhine, some were ...


6

This question is vague in many ways, and there are good mentions in the above replies. However, I also felt I could improve my previous answer by some other mentions -- and to specifically note that while rare, censuses were a thing because people wanted to estimate their tax intake. It is also impossible to estimate what has not survived down the ages. ...


6

Preamble Personally (ignore any moderator diamond you might see next to my name - this is just my opinion as a user of History:SE), I think this question should probably have remained closed, since your main question: "Why did Japan never “apologize” enough for World War 2?" appears to be fully answered by the Wikipedia article you cite, and would thus ...


6

This was a style of diplomacy that has become so obsolete that it is quite alien to modern-day thinking. Much of Africa was ruled by Britain or France. Germany wanted colonies, essentially to show that it was a world power, because world powers had such colonies. There were two major problems with this: The best bits of Africa were already the property of ...


6

No. And, well, yes. It was an examplary piece of world literature. Not to be ignored. Indeed: Much well liked by the governmental censors. But the very word "censors" brings up the problem. It was a bit shortened — for anti-authoritarian tendencies — and sometimes a bit strangely translated. One thing was that Huck was seen as a potentially problematic ...


6

On the face of it, simply because the Treaty of Prague stipulated as much: Article IV His Majesty the Emperor of Austria recognises the dissolution of the present German Confederation and grants his permission to a new design of Germany without the participation of the Austrian Imperial State. Likewise, His Majesty promises to recognise the narrower ...


5

Note that this answer was written before "Update 2" in the question appeared. Summary It seems to be an anecdote, reported only one single time, as "he once said", by one source, undated. It is of a singular nature, not repeating. In that single source it has no relation to any specific occasion and is even phrased with ambiguity, ...


5

The question could use some clarity, but is not unreasonable. In fact, a book was written pretty much on this subject. The Wages of Destruction. Haven't read it, plan to. As a 50-ish French guy, no, it wasn't uncommon to hear older French people say something like "well, he was batshit evil but did fix their unemployment". By people who were not in ...


5

Someone better versed in the relevant history and politics might give you a more precise answer, but being able to read German sources is at least somewhat helpful. In short, there was also a lot of power politics going on. See for example this article (in German). Essentially, in the 50s and 60s, everyone wanted their own nukes. That included Germany's ...


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