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45

Thanks to some hints provided in the comments to my original post here, I have been able to locate some sources that answer my questions, at least on a high level: Beginning in 1989, even before the details of political reunification were being seriously considered, the GDR granted a number of automatic amnesties. Two of these—one on 1 October 1989 and ...


43

The Septemberprogramm of 1914 was a drafted document prepared for Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg. It shows possible envisioned (territorial) war goals including: Turning Belgium into a vassal state or fully annex it (especially including its eastern parts and potentially Antwerpen) Annexing portions of France, force its to partially disarm and demolish its ...


39

During the Cold War, there were always doubts if extended deterrence would hold. Would the US put Washington at risk to defend or avenge Bonn or Frankfurt? So NATO needed powerful signals that they would stand together, even at the expense of operational efficiency. Compare the multinational battalions in the Baltics today -- those cannot stop a Russian ...


32

Bunzlau is now in Poland and called Bolesławiec. Back then it was in Silesia, thus Prussia and therefore in Germany. The photographer is given as "Otto Scholz", a German, not a Polish name, just as the address given is decidedly not Polish. His studio is given as: Fotografische Anstalt, vormals Ed. Scholz & Söhne in Bunzlau und Görlitz ...


23

With the arguable exceptions of Austria and Serbia, no country that got involved in 1914 had long-term war aims in WWI. They got involved in the war first and tried to invent aims later. It worked out about as well as you would expect "act first, plan second" to work out. (Not that things necessarily worked out much better for countries like ...


19

Woodrow Wilson famously entered America into the war to "Make the world safe for Democracy." Germany's comparable slogan might have been to "make the world safe for Germany" (and its allies). Germany had a number of unfinished businesses from the previous century or two. In the southeast, its goal was the "Berlin to Baghdad" ...


15

As your article itself states: On the record, the Germany government only admits to being part of what is officially termed a "nuclear sharing agreement." In essence, the nuclear sharing agreement provides for member states of the military alliance without nuclear weapons to partake in planning and training for the use of nuclear weapons by NATO. ...


12

It is a German uniform of that era. The biggest hints are the cut of it, as visible, the classicist font used for the number on the shoulder boards, and most important: the two cockades on the hat. The upper cockade would have been in imperial colours (black white and red) and the lower in the colours of the issuing state. As the lower one would be of higher ...


10

Hypothesis: She never existed, nor did her 'castle', in this exact name and location at least. This autobiography is not always a reliable historical source for either persons, locations or events. It is certain that Bergman used some real-life persons and real-life names for them alongside with pseudonyms for others in his autobiography. A few of these ...


9

Short Answer: No, with the exception of East Germany, city planning was done by a city and not by a State (Land) or national authority. Between 1933 and 1945, with exceptions, this was also generally true. Before 1933, cities generally delt with the city planning themselfs. Depending on the period, general concepts existed about city development, which ...


8

Before 1914, the 2 organizations that existed were very small: Army (Abteilung III b): 1908 3, 1914: 5 officers Navy (Nachrichtenstelle (N)): 1897: 5, 1900: 2, 1914: unknown Since 1910 there was an active cooperation with Austria (k.u.k. Evidenzbüro). In August 1914, 21 spies were arrested in the United Kingdom and since no communications were possible, ...


8

Short Asnwer: In my opinion, it is probable that you saw the Leechkirche on Rittergasse with a Teutonic Knights cross painted on the doors, instead of a garrison church of a hypothetical German army garrison in Graz during Nazi rule. Long answer: Graz in Austria was part of the Duchy of Styria in the Kingdom of Germany in the Holy Roman Empire until 1806, ...


7

False sense of security Mainstream wisdom during Cold War was that if ever that war becomes hot, Soviets (and Warsaw Pact in general) are bound to invade Western Europe, before substantial reinforcements could come from CONUS . Soviet military did have various contingency plans, some were almost purely offensive ones like 7 days to river Rhine, some were ...


6

On the face of it, simply because the Treaty of Prague stipulated as much: Article IV His Majesty the Emperor of Austria recognises the dissolution of the present German Confederation and grants his permission to a new design of Germany without the participation of the Austrian Imperial State. Likewise, His Majesty promises to recognise the narrower ...


6

This question is vague in many ways, and there are good mentions in the above replies. However, I also felt I could improve my previous answer by some other mentions -- and to specifically note that while rare, censuses were a thing because people wanted to estimate their tax intake. It is also impossible to estimate what has not survived down the ages. ...


6

Territorial annexation goals do not tell the whole story. It's the economy, Stu… Of these annexationist fantasies there were quite a lot going around during the war, and quite significantly: before the war. Obviously, they weren't all identical, but they tended to coalesce around a certain kernel of aims. It was for Germany to become the undisputed hegemon ...


6

War is sweet to those who have never experienced it (Pindar, fifth century BC) Pacifism was pretty strong in arts and literature. Which should not be surprising given that this is the period just after WWI. Proponents were e.g. Carl von Ossietzky, Kurt Tucholsky, or Erich Maria Remarque. In the arts, there were e.g. Otto Dix, Hans Grundig, or Ernst Barlach. ...


6

We are talking about 175-180 suicides of the Nazi leadership, from Hitler down to individual Reichstagsabgeordnete and high ranking Officers (from cursory reading: Significantly more suicides in the Waffen-SS than the Wehrmacht), some Mayors etc. There were probably thousands, maybe low ten thousands of people with similar rank and standing who did not ...


6

It is currently still unclear to which extent and from what angle "any ridicule" might have come. Of course there was some ridicule towards those uniformed men, and of course that ridicule mainly came from political opponents. Uniforms of all kinds were still in much respect and fashion in Germany. Be it old Kaisers Rock (Prussian uniform, ...


6

Yes for the Austro-Prussian War, But no more or less than any other force of the period. The rounding up an executing of civilian hostages as reprisal for franc-tirers did not, so far as I know, occur in the Austro-Prussian war. I don't know much on the Prussian-Dutch war, so will refrain from comment there. Looting of towns and some "outrages" ...


5

Someone better versed in the relevant history and politics might give you a more precise answer, but being able to read German sources is at least somewhat helpful. In short, there was also a lot of power politics going on. See for example this article (in German). Essentially, in the 50s and 60s, everyone wanted their own nukes. That included Germany's ...


5

Q Was the Weimar Republic referred to as such by contemporaries? Yes. Some people at the time sometimes surely used this term. It probably was not that much in common place popular parlance and surely not anywhere used as anything 'official'. But in terms of (sometimes a bit academic) debate, this moniker was well established before 1933. Wikipedia is just ...


5

While a whole piece on the German military after the surrender would be too large, but I'll give an overall picture. I must emphasize this answer is only about post-war Western Europe. Treatment of former Wehrmacht in the East by the Soviet Union is an entirely different matter. The Western Allies anticipated needing to deal with the resulting humanitarian ...


5

Mild inflation may often be good for stock prices, but when people cannot afford basic necessities, there may not be as much money available for speculative investment. In Wiemar Germany, stock prices were volatile but generally declining during the worst of the inflation. Below I've taken a graph from an article by Hans-Joachim Voth and added a thick red ...


4

Q During WWI, were union disputes the only reason for low female employment in German factories? No. It's a matter of perspectives. And it seems as if the articles prompting the question give a not entirely accurate impression. It mischaracterises one law and both its intended and actual effects. From 1916 on there was a law that specified a form of '...


4

That seems pretty much like asking why most countries force their people to drive on the right side of the road, when left driving is clearly superior. Or vice versa. It's pure historical contingency, then path dependency mixed with convention and afterthought rationalisation (like here). It could have been switched at any time to an arbitrary date. Just ...


4

There was one important difference between Nazi leaders and other defeated leaders that (probably) made many Nazi leaders commit suicide. That is the fact that they had committed "war crimes" against civilians, and realized that they would be charged with that. That was what was "unprecedented." Shortly before his execution at Nuremberg, ...


4

It certainly wasn't unprecedented - plenty of defeated combatants kill themselves to avoid capture, rape, or humiliation. Examples: Emperor Chongzhen of the Ming Dynasty Word reached Beijing that Shun rebels were approaching the capital through Juyong Pass, and the Chongzhen Emperor held his last audience with his ministers on 23 April. Li Zicheng offered ...


4

(Putting this as answer, because while not extremely detailed and scarcely sourced - which would be hard to do effectively - this was an event I was following at the time, living in Europe). I can't speak to your TV series, but Eastern Europe in general wasn't all that happy with Communism. Once the USSR under Gorbachev indicated that it would not fight to ...


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