81

The USSR didn't tend to go in for economic competition, but it made good use of intellectual competition and competition for prestige. It was also relatively good at creating organisations that did a specific thing, and kept on doing that. The competition between the MiG and Sukhoi fighter design offices, for example, was quite significant, driven by ...


31

Genuinely like John Dallman's answer, but I'll add some to it: Outside of Party political games, one way to live a better life in the USSR was to hold a position prized by the Party. And something that was very much rewarded was anything that allowed the Communist system to get ahead of their enemies in fields that could lead to military advances. So it ...


13

Most empires (Achaemenid, Roman, Eastern Roman, Osman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian) had very diverse populations and were quite sustainable. Even if you count Eastern Roman empire separately from the Western one, the Western one existed for more than 400 years, and the Eastern one for 1000 years after that. Actually many European countries have very ...


8

Switzerland consists of German-speaking and French-speaking populations, plus some smaller groups. Pretty stable for 500 years.


6

The "Noto Servizio" or "Anello" in Italy should qualify. The "Noto Servizio" was an Italian secret organization made up of former officers, entrepreneurs, industrialists, subjects of the political and economic world, and organized crime, founded towards the end of World War II by fascist war-criminal Mario Roatta, although Wikipedia doesn't know much…) and ...


6

The stacked A, C and I logo (over the word police) would appear to be the logo for the International Association of Chiefs of Police. This is listed on the right hand side of the document as the "International Association Chiefs of Police". The organisation was founded in May 1893 and is still in operation with a slightly modified logo. A History of the ...


6

Your question seems to imply that the Regency membership was under the influence or control of Iturbide, but according to Bancroft, at this later time these seats were reorganized by the Congress, who were in ongoing conflict with Iturbide, essentially attempting to stack it against Iturbide. From Bancroft, History of Mexico 1804-1822, pg 769 (emphasis ...


5

To assume each branch of government will "go to war" is simply a misunderstanding of parliamentarism ("Parliament is supreme"). If OP did not mean, literally, the branches fight each other physically, but a more modest "in conflict" -- whereby the legislature's intention was not interpreted by the judiciary appropriately, and in similiar vein, the ...


4

No, the Governor of Virginia had no power of veto in 1786. The Commonwealth of Virginia adopted its first Constitution on 29 June 1776. This was superseded by the second constitution in 1830. The First Constitution is therefore the one that would have applied in 1786. That Constitution did not give the Governor any power of veto. It states simply that: ...


3

(I'm not sure I've got an answer, but I've got some research that may help someone else find a better answer). The practice appears to be commonplace in European commercial and industrial applications. In commercial and industrial applications (delivery times, production plans, etc.), especially in Europe, it is often required to refer to a week of a ...


3

USSR innovation seems to have been rather field-specific. To contrast with the efforts and results in space engineering would be, for example, much less effective innovation in the fields of pharmaceuticals and other medical sciences. They had legal provision for titles such as "Honoured inventor of the Soviet Union" but perhaps these were rather weak ...


3

They were the people who did not fit in any of the traditional strata of feudal society Russian society in the period you mentioned was roughly divided in four groups: nobility, clergy, peasants (serfs) and city(town) dwellers (merchants, craftsmen, etc ...). This is largely similar to other feudal European societies up to 19th century. Raznochintsy were ...


2

Your question is primarily terminological and cannot have a historical answer. Australia in the early 2000s had federal parliamentary elections combined with a court found constitutional separation of executive and judicial functions. The executive function and judicial function found themselves in conflict over the executive's position on torturing UN ...


1

The impeachment of Andrew Jackson was recorded in the Supplement to the Congressional Globe 1868. Further details may also be found in the Senate Journal. The impeachment of Bill Clinton was recorded in the Congressional Record for 1999. From the Senate Journal, 5 March 1868 The United States vs. Andrew Johnson, President. The Senate sitting for ...


1

Both Japan and China have long had people of different religious convictions (Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, Buddhism and Daoism in China). But neither of these religions insists on "You shall have no other gods beside me", so they do not lead to the emergence of clearly distinguishable groups and therefore the effect on political stability is small. Edit:...


1

I haven't seen "industrial espionage" yet. Soviet Union may have made aircraft, but that's about it; most of the technology was built locally with stolen components. They were stolen both through espionage in the west, ant through extortion from their satellite states, some of which had been much more advanced before the USSR occupied them (Czechoslovakia ...


1

Major Karl Magnus Von Behm was my 5xgreat grandfather. His wife Eva Von Borg was a friend of the Empress Catherine 11. She wanted Alaska to be opened up for settlers and the Major was to find a doctor willing to go. He was to build forts, open up the infrastructure and set up a good administration. He was recommended to her as being an honest man. He ...


1

The effect of increasing the size of Roman Empire affected the control of the Senate over the armies. While Rome was only a small city, the Senate was able to choose Consuls for each year, and rise an army for each campaign. But, when Rome increased its size, it was necessary to keep armies far away of the city, so the members of the army started to be ...


1

I have to agree with @Felix Goldberg. Communication wasn't the real problem. Remaining in power most certainly was, for many emperors. The mortality rate of emperors was as high as gladiators. Not that many died peacefully in bed. Communication was done with the cursus publicus which remained more or less in tact until the very end of the empire. That ...


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