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75

In the particular case of Eratosthenes measuring the radius of the earth, it was done by observing the length of shadows at midday on the summer solstice, in cities that were north-south aligned (to within a few degrees). It was known that the sun was directly overhead on the solstice in the city of Syene in Egypt. But further north in Alexandria on the ...


40

Lemme have a go at this. Its rather ironic that you bring up the Fourth Crusade as it is quite probably the reason Constantinople was lost to Christianity in the first place. Taking place in 1204-5 it was supposed to go to Egypt to fight there the Ayudid sultan who controlled the Holy Land but through a disastrous chain of events it got sidetracked into ...


32

Until the day comes that we have DNA technology (and theory) advanced to the point where we can look at the genetic lineage of large groups of people, really the best indicator we have for cultural descent is language. Now language isn't perfect in this regard. For instance, there are a lot of people indigenous to the Americas whose language has been lost (...


31

In Greece in 1946-1949 there was a bloody civil war between the West-supported right-wing monarchist dictatorship and the Communist rebels of Democratic Army of Greece (DSE). The government won the war and harsh repressions followed. The Communist party was outlawed and Greece entered NATO. It should be noted that due to Soviet-Western war-time agreements ...


25

The Byzantine empire was a continuation of the older Roman empire in the East but it was gradually transformed into a different political entity. Meaning: The original Roman empire used Latin as an official language, as expected, while Byzantium was Greek-speaking They basically inherited the Roman legal system from the Roman empire. They considered ...


24

You are right, the name Hellenes means “pagans” in the New Testament, and was consequently abandoned by Greek Christians, who preferred to call themselves “Romans”. The term Hellene was revived by the Greek philosopher Giorgios Gemistos Plethon in the 15th century as part of his endeavour to replace Christianity by the “Religion of the Hellenes”. It was ...


24

This goes back to Frederick Barbarossa. He granted the university the so called scholar's privilege the privilegium scholasticum or authentica habita in 1150s. Full universities had to be granted papal or princely privileges to be founded but from 1150s on they had judicial autonomy. It was the result of active and collective defiance of students and ...


19

Who protects your daily security? Who does your loyalty belong to? Initially (in the middle ages), the answer was your local nobleman, and, through him, via the duke and/or kind, to the Holy Roman Emperor. Someone had to provide peace, and the choice was limited: whoever has won military control over your area most recently. As long as they did not ...


19

John VI Kantakouzenos John VI Kantakouzenos, who reigned from 31 March 1347 to 10 December 1354, is the emperor who comes closest to meeting your criteria. He was deposed by his co-emperor John V Palaiologos (for whom he had earlier acted as regent), adopted the name Joasaph Christodoulos and wrote a History: After he had been forced to retire, Emperor ...


17

Suspect it was because Greek already had well established literacy whereas other regions you name were much less literate. The Latin alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet. If you were going to rule the Greeks you were going to have to do it in Greek. To those areas you name Romanization brought both the ...


16

After the war between Greece and Turkey in the aftermath of WW I the two countries agreed on an exchange of minorities. But the question of who was “Greek” and who was “Turkish” was decided entirely on the basis of religion (and not language etc.). This means the ethnic Greek (Greek-speaking) converts to Islam were classified as Turks and deported to Turkey. ...


15

They looked in England, but nothing came of it. During the Greek War of Independence, a commission investigated Cornwall, England for descendants of the Palaiologan dynasty. Supposedly, a certain Theodore Palaiologos of Pesaro in Italy died there in 1636. The Ferdinando Palaiologos mentioned in the question was one of his sons, and he died at Barbados on 3 ...


15

This or other similar questions are very much debated, and does not have a simple answer. One shall start by asking who is a Greek, and who is a Turk. Throughout the history, in the geography where Turkey is situated today, hundreds of different civilizations had lived, and one replaced the other. Hellenization of Asia Minor and beyond reached its climax ...


15

Greek states were very much culturally superior to Rome at the time of conquest. This was recognized even by the Romans themselves. A well-educated Roman had to read and speak Greek. There was absolutely no reasons to introduce Latin in the Greek states. All science, philosophy and much of the literature in the Roman empire was written in Greek.


15

To add to the answer of PhillS: there was essentially no method of exact time synchronization in two remote places before 17th century. The method of observation at noon at two places only works UNDER THE ASSUMPTION that the places are on the same longitude. The longitudes of Syene and Alexandria are approximately equal, which Eratosthenes knew (when ...


14

Under the so-called "Percentages Agreement" proposed by Churchill and accepted by Stalin, Greece was the only country in the Balkans with less than 50% Soviet influence (10% to be exact). The other main Balkan countries, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia and Hungary all had 50% or more Soviet influence. Although Greek Communists started a civil war, it might ...


14

Just a hint, according to Greek wikipedia entry (which cites this book), the Patriarch wrote Ῥωμαῖοι - Rhōmaîoi in the letter.: Οι δύο δυνάμεις ολόκληρου του σύμπαντος, η δύναμη των Σαρακηνών και αυτή των Ρωμαίων, ξεχωρίζουν και ακτινοβολούν όπως τα δύο μεγάλα φωτεινά σώματα του ουράνιου θόλου. Γι'αυτόν και μόνο τον λόγο θα πρέπει να ζήσουμε μαζί ...


12

There was no "good" time for Europeans to take back Constantinople. As late as 1683, the Ottomans had the upper hand, besieging Vienna. Up to that point, Europe was more concerned about defending itself than about rolling back Ottoman power. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the one European power that might have been able to take back ...


10

Simple answer: From ancient times all different ethnicities have been mixed with other ones more or less. The population of Greece has too. But the old Greek populations have never been exterminated, so its safe to say that present day Greeks are at a very high percentage descendants of the ancient Greeks. Other contributions to the Greek genome come from ...


10

There were actually two mosques built within the Parthenon, the first was mostly destroyed when the explosion took place in 1687. The second mosque, which you are referring to is discussed in The Parthenon: From Antiquity to the Present, by Jenifer Neils. On page 324 it is stated that the small mosque had been damaged in sieges in 1821, 1826, and was ...


10

Firstly, your assertion that: > It is said he recorded the last words of the Spartans "stranger go tell Sparta we lie here obedient to her laws " is incorrect. That is actually the wording of an inscription that Herodotus states was erected above the graves of the Spartans. In fact, Herodotus records that three inscriptions were put there (Book VII, ...


10

The exact quote or close variants of it never show up with a proper source attribution. That is usually a sign that those typing these words cannot name one. And I tend to dismiss all of these cases as abuse and severe distortions or even malevolent inventions. The searched sources included search engines, newspapers from 1964, a biography of Makarios, ...


9

Unlike a city wall, that has people always around it to man and guard it, a free standing border wall tends to get stripped of manpower whenever the attention of the state building it falters. An unmanned wall isn't hard to get around, or over. I've even read that some believe the main task of these border fences is less to hold invaders out, than to keep ...


9

So officially, would carry wheat and barley but they ate whatever they could find, Armies back then were principally fed with wheat, the soldiers would have likely ate plain whole wheat bread loaves. They would supplement this with whatever they could forage, wild animals, fruits, vegetables etc. Answers.com assessment that ancient soldiers ...


8

Simpler answer: the Roman Empire centered in Constantinople was always the Roman Empire and the Greek-speaking Roman Christians continued to refer to themselves as Romans even during Ottoman rule (and indeed the Ottomans referred to them this way as well). "Greek" was the name of the language and the name of the ancient people that the Romans conquered. ...


8

According to The Last Lion - Defender of the Realm 1940-1965 by Manchester & Read (page 334), 40,000 British and ANZAC troops were evacuated from Greece in April 1941. That would leave about 15,000 total casualties - Killed, unevacuated wounded, and POW. Still from that source (page 356), Casualties in Crete a month later were 1,700 killed, 2,000 ...


8

Is the question: "Why did the Great Britain not assist Greek expansionism in the Aegean (specifically Asia Minor/Anatolia) at the expense of the Turks?" Well Jon Custer's comment that war-weariness on the part of the Allies played a role is true. None of the nations in the Entente had appetite for continuing a costly war. The Treaty of Sevres outlined the ...


8

Ataturk was not the architect of this exchange. The idea of protecting minorities in former Ottoman Empire came from the western Allies - according to the wiki article on the Lausanne Conference, second-priority goals of Britain included "measures for the protection of the minorities in Turkey". Moreover, the article you linked names Fridjof Nansen, high ...


7

A study published in the August, 2017 issue of Nature claims to have established a link between the modern Greek population and the Mycenaeans based on DNA analysis from ancient remains. From the paper's abstract: Modern Greeks resemble the Mycenaeans, but with some additional dilution of the Early Neolithic ancestry. Our results support the idea of ...


7

They melted in with the local population. In Turkey there's no such notion of pure race. I'm from a village located within the Black Sea region of Turkey. We have bazaar which are in ruins today left over from Greek villagers. However there are some Greek origin Muslims living in Trabzon area which still speak the language.


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