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82

The answer is probably Yes, some Greeks had visited the peak around 2900 meters above the sea level. Average people who are fit can easily do it, at least from one side. But it's important to realize that they didn't expect to meet gods there. According to the Greek teaching, the divine and human spheres only overlapped but they were not identical. One ...


47

Quite a bit, actually. Graeco-Roman mythology was a significant part of the education curriculum. Much of the educated elite would have been broadly familiar with ancient Greek mythologies through its Latin form, albeit overlaid with a Christian point of view. In High Medieval England, an anthology of six works known collectively as the Liber Catonianus (...


38

It is impossible to ascertain for sure. Eleven gods of the Greek major pantheon all lived in various named corners of the mountain. Even Zeus resided on only the second-highest of the many peaks, with the highest, Mytikas, reserved as their meeting pace.) This suggests that the ancient Greeks were familiar with the terrain of the mountain. The summit ...


30

The Nun's Priest's Tale from Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales: Lo heere Andromacha, Ectores wyf, That day that Ector sholde lese his lyf, She dremed on the same nyght biforn […] He wente for to fighte natheles, But he was slayn anon of Achilles. It would seem that Chaucer doesn't feel the need to give a lot of background on who ...


20

By definition, a historian is a scientist. Herodotus is generally considered the "father of history" and he distinguishes myths from historical facts, or at least tries to. At least the gods to not interfere in his history directly (except by pronouncements of the oracles which in his and in the later Greek accounts are always relevant, but this is not ...


13

Yes, they did. At the very least Pausanias in "Description of Greece" VI, 20, 1 mentions sacrifice for Cronus done once a year on the head of a mountain Elathion in Elis. Sorry, I can't find a reference for English translation of this excerpt. Talking about Rhea, the late cult of Rhea-Cybele is widely known. UPD. Pausanias "Description of Greece" I, 18, 7 ...


8

The Iliad, the most important of Greek Mythology, in ancient times was at the center of western education. Children in Greece prior to the Roman expansion started learning with the Iliad, and the Iliad remained a prominent part of education through the Roman era into the middle ages. Not just Homer was important, but it is also my understanding that the ...


8

You are assuming that the Ancient Greeks believed that their Gods were humanly visible, which is unlikely. Therefore, whether or not they climbed Mount Olympus, the Ancient Greeks would not have expected to visibly see their Gods. From Classical Myths by Barry B. Powell (a textbook often used in undergrad classics courses): In other myths, the setting is ...


7

To speak to the first question: we are usually led a bit astray by the term "myth," by which we tend to mean a story somewhat akin to a fable that is (to us) obviously not true. To the Greeks, "myth" just mean "story" or "plot." Their religion was in part made up of a lot of stories, but so is every religion. That doesn't mean they didn't believe them or ...


7

Based on my answer on the Mythology stack... There used to be a theory that the Titans were actually the gods of the inhabitants of (geographical) Greece before the Greeks invaded and took it over. The idea there is that the story of Titanomachy is actually an allegory for the Greek takeover of their modern homeland. This theory was popular enough back ...


7

Short answer: Greek history, as opposed to myth and legend, begins about one hundred to three hundred years before the time of Herodotus. Long answer: Herodotus (c.484-c.425 BC) has been called "The Father of History". he was the first historian known to have broken from Homeric tradition to treat historical subjects as a method of investigation—...


7

Looks like the image is based on the myth of Eos pursuing Tithonos: Other images Here and the image you have(apparently edited for today's sense of decency and appears on the cover of this book: Women in Greek Myth Paperback – January 16, 2007 by Mary R. Lefkowitz


6

Did they tolerate those who only believed in some of their gods? I don't see how it is possible - how does one believe in, say, Mars but not in his father Jupiter? Mars is defined as a Jupiter's son! Given that the Greek/Roman pantheon is a sex, jealousy & violence -obsessed dysfunctional family, it makes no sense for a person to deny divinity of any ...


6

The man in the top right corner is Philip II of Macedon. According to legend, Zeus took to the serpent form and seduced and had coitus with his wife Olimpias and fathered Alexander the Great (or Alessandro Magno in Italian). This is why Zeus is shown in the half serpent form. The legend also says that Philip caught a glimpse of this and hence one day would ...


5

To answer your immediate question, the sarcophagus would have been for a wealthy Roman. In the case of the Genzano sarcophagus you cite, like many similar ones, the name of the deceased is unknown. During the high Imperial period of Rome, 200-400 A.D., sarcophagi such as these were popular. They were often decorated in high relief and contained mythological ...


4

The Wikipedia page of "oracular statements from Delphi" lists a few accounts that might apply here. One example could be the Oracle of Delphi's counsel to Philip of Macedonia. He was told, "With silver spears you may conquer the world." The straightforward reading would be to make a whole bunch of spears made of silver and go to war. But Philip wisely ...


4

Poseidon is associated with dolphins. There are also stories of him having various sexual encounters with a large number of other humans and gods. These do include rapes and also transformations into other animals. However, I don't find an exact match for your line. I did however find that Melantho, Daughter of Deucalion, was raped by Neptune as a dolphin. ...


4

I generally suggest anyone interested in Ancient History in the Near East start with Colin McEvedy's New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History. This is a history of all the peoples of the near-east area since the dawn of humanity to 462 AD. Every page is the same base map, but advanced a few years, and a page opposite going into details about the political ...


4

There are two temples at Cumae which have been associated with Apollo, an upper one and a lower one. The latter, which is the one your question appears to refer to, is the more definitely identified but there is no established early date as "facts and finds are deficient". The earliest likely date would appear to be late 6th century BC. Map source: ...


4

According to the common version of the myth, Theseus left her in Naxos. He probably sailed more than one day from Naxos to Athens, with stops on his way. So this is not his final leg which is shown in the picture. In those time sailing at night was unusual. They tried to spend nights on the shore, which was possible in most cases because of the abundance of ...


3

There is a major definition problem here. The cultures you reference did not draw a distinction between church and state. To refuse to offer incense to the patron god of the state was to refuse the legitimacy of the state. One metaphor might be that to refuse incense was like refusing to pay taxes - god and the state deserved their due. In general, these ...


3

The god in question is Dionysus (or Bacchus, if you're from Rome), god of the grape harvest and wine, among other things. The geographical origins of Dionysus are Greek. From the Mycenaean Linear B tablets, we know that a "DI-WO-NI-SO-JO" was known (at least) in Pylos before 1200 B.C. (source) Homer's relative neglect of Dionysus, coupled with the ...


3

Description English: Herma representing Herakles with a cornucopia. Pentelic marble, Roman artwork from the 2nd century BC after a Greek original of the 5th century. The worn surface of the statue is the result from long exposure to the elements. http://books.google.com/books?id=ff51JeXhHXUC&pg=PA423&lpg=PA423&dq=heracles+cornucopia+vase&...


2

Yes they did. There are specific instances of historians or philosophers being ostracized for criticizing not even the existence of the gods, but just the powers of the gods. An example illustrating their literal belief is that when Tiberius found out that the god Pan had "died", he had an investigation launched as to the cause of his death. Christians ...


2

You want Mythology by Edith Hamilton. It is fantastic. And the first to read, as it is the most important, is the Iliad by Homer. This book formed the basis for classical education until at least the 1800's. I suggest the translation by Lombardo for several reasons.The language is very readable, and without pretension. Also, this translation is far less ...


2

The thing that we often miss about Greek mythology today is that it never was a stable body of stories. While Judaeo-Christian religions have singular sources of authority (the word of God), the Greeks had a multiplicity of authorities. There were several different types of myth and LOTS of local variations. So, for example, a story about Theseus might be ...


2

This quote, from Giuseppe Ricciotti's The Age of Martyrs: Christianity from Diocletian (284) to Constantine (337), appears to answer many of my questions simultaneously: …the whole of polytheistic teaching [of the Romans] was being transformed. Already some fifty years before Diocletian [c. 284], a kind of hierarchical confederation had unconsciously ...


1

It is a long time since I studied this and just now I do not have time to research it so must leave it to you to verify but I believe you are right that: 'the shift from black to red figure pottery placed more emphasis on the importance of mortal men, and began focusing less so on the Greek mythological events and gods and turned more toward the everyday ...


1

It is entirely possible to find ancient Greeks and Romans discussing this very matter. My amateur opinion is that it was sort of a favorite parlor game to try to map the gods of one civilization to those of another, and maybe discover new ones. I'll provide several examples of this from Herodotus. People are pretty skeptical of Herodotus in terms of factual ...


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