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45

Prior to Phillip's time, the ancient Greek world was fragmented in (often warring) city states and kingdoms, and citizenship was considered far more important than nationality or ancestry. Pericles' reforms (451 BC) exemplify the distinction: From that point on Athenian citizens would lose their citizenship if they married non Athenians, regardless of their ...


34

That particular website, well ... its not very credible. Its part of Wikia, a site designed for Science Fiction/Fantasy fans to create their own wikis. In other words, things don't get deleted/removed/edited out there just because they have no relation whatsoever to reality. This person's Wikia site reuses the name of the defunct precursor to Wikipedia, ...


17

Suspect it was because Greek already had well established literacy whereas other regions you name were much less literate. The Latin alphabet was based on the Etruscan alphabet which was in turn based on the Greek alphabet. If you were going to rule the Greeks you were going to have to do it in Greek. To those areas you name Romanization brought both the ...


16

Satan is a character from Hebrew mythology1. His most full representation found in the Tanakh is the first two chapters of Job in which הַשָּׂטָן (ha-Satan) appears along with the בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים (ben 'elohiym) before God. Job becomes the topic of conversation (on God's initiative) and Satan suggests that Job only worships God because of the blessings he ...


16

Definitely, Crimea (Chersonesos) or some place in its surrounding. Crimea's south coast was part of Roman Empire in 47 BC - 330 AD, and also a part of the Byzantine Empire later. Greek colonists settled the area much before Rome. Update. I have found some more relevant information. During the Roman times the area at the North-East of the Black Sea (East of ...


15

Greek states were very much culturally superior to Rome at the time of conquest. This was recognized even by the Romans themselves. A well-educated Roman had to read and speak Greek. There was absolutely no reasons to introduce Latin in the Greek states. All science, philosophy and much of the literature in the Roman empire was written in Greek.


11

You are taking the quote out of context. Here is the complete text from the Story of Civilization: Twelve years he wandered, imbibing wisdom from every source, sitting at every shrine, tasting every creed. Some would have it that he went to Judea and was moulded for a while by the tradition of the almost socialistic prophets; and even that he found ...


11

These are tickets to the archaeological sites of Epidaurus (which includes the still in use theatre) and Mycenae. In the Epidaurus ticket, the images are of the Athenian Pnyx and the orator Demosthenes. In the Mycenae ticket you can see the Lion Gate, as Pieter Geerkens already mentioned. The fine print on the left (the printing company's name) is written ...


10

In the Orthodox Church parish priests are virtually always married. Monks and higher clergy (Bishops etc.) are celibate.


8

"Assassin" doesn't really mean somebody paid to kill. It rather means somebody who kills a prominent person by surprise attack. (1, 2, 3) Latin seems to have had a word for this: sicarius. I don't know if ancient Greek did.


8

As one more piece of evidence, Philip Freeman in his biography Alexander the Great judges thus: The question of Macedonian language and ethnic identity is one of the most contentious topics in classical scholarship, the debate often driven more by modern Balkan nationalism than the small amount of ancient evidence we actually possess. I incline to ...


8

The quote is from Odyssey 10.84-6: ἔνθα κ᾿ ἄυπνος ἀνὴρ δοιοὺς ἐξήρατο μισθούς, τὸν μὲν βουκολέων, τὸν δ᾿ ἄργυφα μῆλα νομεύων· ἐγγὺς γὰρ νυκτός τε καὶ ἤματός εἰσι κέλευθοι. where the Greek word rendered as "wage" is μισθός/misthos, which did denote a range of meanings depending on historical periods and geographic regions; but in its most common ...


7

This is the most prominent of the inscriptions on the Grand Colonnade in Palmyra. It is a bilingual inscription dedicating the column in Greek and Palmyrene. The Greek portion of the inscription is as follows: ΗΒΟΥΛΗΚΑΙΟΔΗΜΟΣ ΙΟΥΛΙΟΝΑΥΡΗΛΙΟΝΖΗΝΟΒΙΟΝ ΤΟΥΚΑΙΖΑΒΔΙΛΑΝΔΙϚΜΑΛ ΧΟΥΤΟΥΝΑΣΣΟΥΜΟΥΣΤΡΑΤΗ ΓΗΣΑΝΤΑΕΝΕΠΙΔΗΜΙΑΘΕΟΥ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥΚΑΙΥΠΗΝΡΕΤΗ ...


7

This Map of Greek Colonies in the Adriatic shows that the most northerly posts were Pharos and Issos halfway up the coast. These were secondary settlements from Syracuse and Ionian cities, though. If you eliminate those you are down in Albania.


7

This anecdote is quite common, many versions do not have "expel him", and it is more frequently associated with Euclid rather than Plato. Which is more natural. After all Plato did not teach mathematics, and no mathematical discoveries are credited to him. He discussed mathematics in some of his dialogues, like Theaetetus. "Platonic solids" are named after ...


7

Pre-modern payments for exertion were: gratuities: such as the coin to the beggar payment for an good or instant service: such as the loaf from the baker or the fuck from the whore part of a long term relationship of continuing semi-servile labour: such as the cow herd or sheep pasturer "Wage" here is entirely from a translation, so it is the translators' ...


6

The text above the first image is in both Greek alphabet and in English, the latter being: (He did did not seem to be resting, but his mind was in action and he seemed to be revolving some subtle plan ...) Anthologia Palatina More on the background of the Palatine Anthology and it's significance is available here (pp 362) The Palatine Anthology was ...


6

The earliest references I could find where Satan is called διάβολος, are in the Book of Revelation, written somewhere between 70 AD to 90 AD in Koine Greek: (2:10) ΜΗ ΦΟΒΟΥ ΜΗΔΕΝ ΕΚ ΤΩΝ ΟΣΑ ΜΕΛΛΕΙΣ ΝΑ ΠΑΘΗΣ ΙΔΟΥ Ο ΔΙΑΒΟΛΟΣ ΜΕΛΛΕΙ ΝΑ ΒΑΛΗ ΤΙΝΑΣ ΕΞ ΥΜΩΝ ΕΙΣ ΦΥΛΑΚΗΝ ΔΙΑ ΝΑ ΔΟΚΙΜΑΣΘΗΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΛΕΤΕ ΕΧΕΙ ΘΛΙΨΙΝ ΔΕΚΑ ΗΜΕΡΩΝ ΓΙΝΟΥ ΠΙΣΤΟΣ ΜΕΧΡΙ ΘΑΝΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΘΕΛΩ ΣΟΙ ...


6

There is no easy answer to this question. There tended to be a wide variation in styles and approaches to writing. For example, if you look at just the examples in "Studies in fifth century Attic epigraphy" by Donald Bradeen, you will see a range of styles and that is just one place and time. As a rule writing was most often continuous. I see that in the ...


6

The most notable continual use of the Greek language in Egypt was by the Patriarchate of Alexandria and the Orthodox communities that surrounded it. Estimating how large this community was throughout the middle ages is particularly difficult as few records exist in Arabic that document the community. You can find a list of patriarchs of Alexandria on ...


6

Greek was the language of government and the ruling elite in Egypt from the Ptolemies (successors to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC) down to the conquest of Byzantine Egypt by Muslim Arabs in the seventh century AD, around 1000 years. In 'Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World' by Nicholas Ostler the author considers why some ...


6

Did they tolerate those who only believed in some of their gods? I don't see how it is possible - how does one believe in, say, Mars but not in his father Jupiter? Mars is defined as a Jupiter's son! Given that the Greek/Roman pantheon is a sex, jealousy & violence -obsessed dysfunctional family, it makes no sense for a person to deny divinity of any ...


5

Knowledge of Greek was rare until the Renaissance. Scholars fleeing the fall of Constantinople brought to Italy their knowledge of Classical Greek, a good bit different from the popular Greek. In fact, through most of the Middle Ages, anyone knowing Greek was assumed to be Irish, and one of their better scholars at that. The habit of making younger sons ...


5

It is a Latin derivative of the Greek name Dioklēs, which is from dio- (the compositional stem of the divine name Zeus), plus –klēs (“fame”). So it means “with fame from Zeus”. It has nothing to do with di- “two”. Reference: Beekes, Etymological dictionary of Greek.


5

Just to clarify definitions, phonograms are symbols that are used to represent sounds. Ideograms are symbols used to represents objects or concepts. The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic alphabet seems to have included both phonograms and ideograms from the very beginning, somewhere between 3300 and 3200BC. Words are often constructed using phonograms at the ...


5

At least two wiki pages cover your question: Theories of Pashtun origin Pashtuns, section History and origins The first of these mentions the Greco-Bactrian origin among other legends, and concludes: Prior to DNA studies, it was generally acknowledged that their origins were obscure, and modern scholars suggest that a single origin of the Pashtuns is ...


4

He was part of the common Greek collection of tribes and cities. He was from Greek parents Olympias who came from a Molossian royal family that traced its origins to Neoptolemus, the son of the greatest hero of the Trojan War, Achilles. Philip came from a Macedonian family that traced its origins to the Peloponnesian Greek city of Argos and Hercules/Heracles....


4

There is no mention in any Greek source of Plato travelling to India, or to any place in Asia. He did however sail to Sicily.


4

I don't know yet, but there is some indirect evidence that an Indian Yogi met Socrates. Travelling far and wide was not uncommon. Shankaracharya travelled all over India on foot. So did Ramanuja. Fa hien and Hiuen Tsang travelled to India, crossing the Himalayas.


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