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SHORT ANSWER The Ottomans used camels because they have several advantages over horses. Among other things, they can carry more than horses and adapt well to a variety of climates (even cold ones) and terrain, and were thus ideal for transporting the large quantities of supplies needed by the Ottoman armies. DETAILED ANSWER Camels were used in large ...


12

One reason was that a number of these Catholic "secular" kingdoms actually derived a lot of their power from the Church. Two of these were Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (and some of their descendants) were (in)famous for the Inquisition. They were also known as "their most Catholic majesties." Because Spain had been ...


11

It is possible to kill a ridiculous number of birds in a day, if you do driven game shooting. The Wikipedia article specifically describes grouse shooting, but pheasant and partridge can be shot in the same way. This doesn't resemble what most people would call "hunting", it's an activity of wealthy Europeans, especially the British nobility. The classic ...


9

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about being an Archduchess of Austria. Indeed, I'm not sure how one could ask for a more legitimate bride than a princess of Europe's most prestigious royal house. In ...


7

After some reading up I have the beginnings of an answer here, I think. The partition of the Habsburg lands actually took place in 1521 (The pact of Worms) and 1522 (The pact of Brussels), way before Philip II was even born. By the Worms and Brussels agreements, which were actually family documents and not diplomatic instruments, Charles's brother Ferdinand ...


6

I believe it is much simpler than put forward in other answers - One uses the beasts of burden one has. Here is the Ottoman Empire a few decades before the Siege of Vienna: It is readily apparent that it contains vast territories favouring camels over horses (mostly Arabia, Egypt, and Libya) as well as those that favour horses over camels (basically ...


5

The German wikipedia page of the Archduke gives an even higher number. Specifically it says that he shot on a single day in June 1908 2763 black-headed gulls. They even cite a book as a source just for this claim, so it seems to be a reliable number. However, I wasn't able to find anything on how or where he accomplished that number. However, what John ...


5

A somewhat blunt analysis, but Catholicism was hierarchical and prescriptive, Protestantism more personal and individual - the Bible etc in the vernacular. Kings were appointed by God. To oppose the king was to oppose God Himself - a pretty powerful argument! Cf the English Revolution 1688 when James II tried to claim the Divine Right of Kings'. Who is going ...


5

The Emperor Charles V lived out his entire life on the European continent, with a few short visits to the north African coast. He definitely never visited the colonies in the Americas. Here's what I was able to find: Easternmost Location: Vienna, in 1532, to fight off the armies of the Ottoman Empire. Westernmost Location: Seville, in 1526, for his ...


5

The striking thing was that France and Austria had been political rivals going back to the time of Francis I (France) and Charles V (Austria). Until the mid 18th century. After winning the 100 Years' War, France became the strongest power in western Europe. Spain and Austria (counting the Holy Roman Empire) were two and three, and when Princess Juana of ...


5

The 1618 Prague defenestration took place on May 23th, 1618 and Oñate's news about it arrived to Madrid in July 1618. This is compatible with the duration of the communication to be 5-7 weeks which is absolutely reasonable. 200,000 ducats were immediately reserved to beat the courageous Czechs and additional 500,000 ducates were sent in November. The ...


5

Easy: through his mother, who was Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.


4

"Spain was a powerful kingdom ruled by Ferdinand and Isabella (or their descendants) at that time." Charles V was one of those descendants. Specifically, his mother, Juana of Castile was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, while he inherited Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands from his father and the father's parents. And Charles V ...


3

Westernmost Location: Charles V was in Galicia, in A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela (42°52′N, 08°32′W) in 1520, where he called for the Cortes (Parliament) of Castille: Ref.: Biography of CHARLES V. Carlos V. Emperador y Hombre, by Juan Antonio Vilar Sánchez.


2

They were Catholic, because their subjects were Romanised at a deep enough level to prefer being Roman Catholic. If you look at where the Roman empire's borders were: You can see that it very closely mirrors the dividing line between Catholics and Protestants. England could be said to be an exception, but rather it is a special in-between case, because ...


2

Reign of Maria Theresa as Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Hungary and Croatia, etc., Queen of Bohemia, Duchess of Styria, Carinthia and Carnioila, etc. 1740 to 1780. Reign of Maria Theresa as Empress consort of Holy Roman Empire 1745-1765. Reign of Joseph II as sole Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary and Croatia, etc., King of Bohemia, Duke of Styria, ...


2

This was Joseph II, the son of Empress Maria Theresa. The mother was considered an "enlightened" monarch for her time, and the son was a well-meaning reformer, who proved that "the road to hell is paved with good intentions." He ruled in the second half of the 18th century, jointly with his mother in the earlier years. For instance, he set the serfs free, ...


2

Various details of the partition in the 1550s were more or less negotiable and no doubt were negotiated quite intensely. But at least one detail was not negotiable. Why did Ferdinand become emperor after Charles V? Charles V was elected emperor on 28 June 1519 and crowned King of the Romans on 26 October 1520. He was crowned King of Italy on 22 February ...


1

In large part because she asked them to do so. Almost no "king" would do this. But Maria Theresa was a woman, and a young, attractive, one at that. So she turned her woman's "weakness" into a strength. Her father had paved the way 17 years earlier, by making large land grants to Hungarian nobles for signing the so-called Pragmatic Sanction. But a large ...


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