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The discipline of history as emergent in the 19th century in its scholarly practice or intellectual discipline exists as a social phenomena in many contemporary societies. The discipline of history did not emerge in the 19th century as a scholarly practice, intellectual discipline nor social phenomena. Herodotus is often refereed to as the father of ...


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Most historians argue that history is a good in itself, as a literary pursuit. This is reflected in history being a commonly funded discipline in self regulating universities, even under specialised autonomous high level funding, where institutions could choose otherwise. Historians appeal to state and popular desire for nationalist (or ideological) ...


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Why practice History? Its justification or utility does seem to be indirect. The two contemporary scholars quoted below both hold broadly that comprehension of the past is essential for comprehension of the present. Their arguments are strongly reminiscent of the old aphorism about those "doomed to repeat" the past. Both authors note and reject the old ...


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Historiography roundly rejects both great man theories of history and national will theories of history. Both are considered pre-"modern" in terms of accounts of the past. The idea of "the individual" and action are both suspect. "Will," is generally rejected. The idea of summation of individuals producing a spirit doesn't exist. "Great events," are ...


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An excellent example is Lollardy in England. Today many people read the Lollards through a lens of modern left wing movements. Ironically this is a useful reading: the Lollards were educated intermediaries who were incensed with moral outrages and tried to harness a movement of ordinary working people for their own benefits. We know more about the Lollards ...


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If I'm going to address this in context, the general point is that all we have to go by is written records, and in eras of low literacy, that means all we get is the perspective of the few literate people. The early Middle Ages (aka: "Dark Ages") were definitely a period of low literacy in Europe, and in this case the few people who had the ability and ...


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You won't get a clear definition, as this changes from century to century, from area to area, and also in the eye of the beholder. Village priests were often poor, illiterate or barely literate, and clearly not an elite unless compared to rest of the village. Same for monks and nuns. Priests in more important churches, bishops, and priests who also served ...


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Ironically enough, this is likely a case of Chinese whispers. There is a relatively established crackpot "theory" that the Chinese discovered America in the 5th century or so, and called the new land "Fusang." This claim has been around for a while, and also features in the Wikipedia article linked in the question: A group of Chinese Buddhist ...


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There is a book called They All Discovered America, by Charles Michael Boland, 1961, which listed and discussed all the claims of pre Columbian discoveries of America that the author could find. Each chapter should have a discussion of the evidence for the claim in that chapter. So that book could be a fairly good guide (allowing for Boland's biases) to the ...


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There are two potential points of evidence that I am aware of. 1) A Mr. Moriarity and Mr. Pearson first published a paper detailing the findings of circular stone anchors similar to a type of anchor found in china that were found off the coast of California, 2) a map was published by Gavin Menzies that seemed to be a Chinese map from the 1400's showing ...


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