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50 votes
Accepted

Who first called natural satellites "moons"?

Chistiaan Huygens in 1656 is the first documented evidence. The invention of the telescope limits this to after 1610. Since Galileo was the first to observe such objects, it was Kepler who in 1611 ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
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29 votes
Accepted

Did pre-Columbian Americans know the spherical shape of the Earth?

Firstly, it is important to be aware that our understanding of the civilisations and culture of Pre-Columbian America is far from complete. Secondly, I don't propose to attempt to cover every ...
sempaiscuba's user avatar
  • 77.4k
25 votes

When did the acceptance of diversity become such an important social goal in Western countries?

Embracing diversity (as well as the contrary, wanting more uniformity) might be a bit of a historical constant. You can find it at the very beginning of Confucius' Analects. Is it not delightful to ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 9,216
25 votes

Who first called natural satellites "moons"?

A publication from 1665, Philosophical Transactions, in an article which tosses about names like Huygens and Cassini, has a discussion concerning a publication by Giuseppe Campani. This article ...
justCal's user avatar
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18 votes

When and how did people begin to consider slavery immoral?

Nobody so far has pointed out the obvious: The first people to believe that slavery was evil and wrong were probably discontented slaves (as opposed to contented slaves). I would guess that nobody ...
M.A. Golding's user avatar
13 votes
Accepted

Have any large scale cultural or ideological shifts ever been successfully reversed by those who opposed it?

I think the best examples are provided by post-WW1 emancipation of women in some Muslim countries. The most salient episodes are Turkey (where Mustafa Kemal made women abandon hijab by requiring that ...
sds's user avatar
  • 27k
6 votes

Have any large scale cultural or ideological shifts ever been successfully reversed by those who opposed it?

I'll answer this with a firm, clear, "yes and no." First, in an important sense the question answers itself: for a shift to be seen as large scale, it will usually have to be big enough that it can't ...
Mark Olson's user avatar
  • 7,703
6 votes

Who is "Rhadir of Seville"?

Within all probability, the most likely explanation seems to be that this is a mixup. The correct name should be: "Abū Muḥammad Jābir ibn Aflaḥ", a Muslim astronomer also known as latinised ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
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5 votes

How much of what we know about ancient philosophers comes from oral literature?

I think you want to start by reading a little Dante. Here I saw Socrates and Plato, who in front of the others stands nearest to him; Democritus, who ascribes the world to chance; Diogenes, ...
pokep's user avatar
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5 votes
Accepted

Where can I find information about "stone power" / lapidaire?

It is indeed difficult to find with a simple web-search reliable information about a scientifically mostly discredited idea, that nevertheless still enjoys enormous popularity in esoteric circles. ...
LаngLаngС's user avatar
  • 80.9k
5 votes

What exactly is the "revolution from the bourgeois" referred to in flow?

The answer would go something like this: Civilisation means some kind of organised society in which humans live in close proximity to each other. The humans, in the Freudian picture, are subject to ...
Everard O'Donnell's user avatar
5 votes
Accepted

When and how did the concept of posthumous reward and punishment enter ancient Judaism?

The concept the question is referring to is called "Sheol." The word "Sheol" is sometimes translated as "grave," but it's not quite a correct translation. The Sheol ...
Smith's user avatar
  • 2,090
4 votes

When did the spherical shape of the Earth become common knowledge?

The Wikipedia article Myth of the flat Earth gives a general summary for the Western world as: According to Stephen Jay Gould, "there never was a period of 'flat Earth darkness' among scholars (...
Mark Johnson's user avatar
  • 9,724
4 votes

How much of what we know about ancient philosophers comes from oral literature?

Edit: Now that the OP question has been reworded for clarity I will tip my hat to pokep as being closer to answering the intent of the inquiry. It was not clear to me originally where orality and myth ...
SeligkeitIstInGott's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

Easter ornaments question

(Not counting rabbits, eggs, etc.) First, Lent is a time of penance, even more than Advent. It is not the time for beautiful ornaments, it is very understandable that it is more visually austere. ...
Luiz's user avatar
  • 4,438
2 votes

Have any large scale cultural or ideological shifts ever been successfully reversed by those who opposed it?

In the Byzantine Empire, iconoclasm was a significant cultural and ideological shift in the 8th century that was successfully reversed in the mid-9th century after an unsuccessful reversal earlier. ...
C Monsour's user avatar
  • 4,215
2 votes

When is the first recorded instance of someone dying for a principle?

I think the phenomenon is older than the recorded history. Literature is full of examples, since the beginning of its existence. Antigone is one example from Greek tragedy.
Alex's user avatar
  • 38.8k
2 votes

When is the first recorded instance of someone dying for a principle?

Abraham and his almost sacrifice of his son Isaac might be a good example. Even though we do not know whether is a real event or just a metaphor. Spartans at Thermopylae battle are a good example as ...
Santiago's user avatar
  • 4,839
2 votes

How accurate is Russell on liberalism versus fanaticism in war?

I beg to differ with the answers above. If we look at the spirit of Russel's argument two things must be taken into account: One side must be liberal, the other fanatical. This is important - it's ...
Censored to protect the guilty's user avatar
2 votes

How long have culture wars/cultural dichotomies been around?

Insofar as I'm aware, the left vs right dichotomy specifically dates back from the French Revolution, during which conservative royalists sat right and liberal republicans sat left. Dichotomies ...
Denis de Bernardy's user avatar
1 vote

When did the spherical shape of the Earth become common knowledge?

It is very hard to know know when more than 50 % of Humans over the age of 16 knew that the Earth is roughly spherical. The two regions with the largest populations are China and the Indian ...
MAGolding's user avatar
  • 19.3k
1 vote

When and how did people begin to consider slavery immoral?

Let's not forget that you could sell yourself into slavery (and keep the money of course, maybe a fee to slave traders if you needed them). This was a COMMON practice in Roman times. Specially ...
Rogério Penna's user avatar

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