49

Chistiaan Huygens in 1656 is the first documented evidence. The invention of the telescope limits this to after 1610. Since Galileo was the first to observe such objects, it was Kepler who in 1611 called them satellites in his Narratio de observatis a se quatuor Iovis Satellitibus erronibus. Which is about 'the Satellites wandering about Jupiter'. The ...


28

Firstly, it is important to be aware that our understanding of the civilisations and culture of Pre-Columbian America is far from complete. Secondly, I don't propose to attempt to cover every civilisation, so this will - at best - be only a partial answer. However, with those caveats: As far as I am aware, we have no evidence that any pre-Columbian ...


24

A publication from 1665, Philosophical Transactions, in an article which tosses about names like Huygens and Cassini, has a discussion concerning a publication by Giuseppe Campani. This article discusses the similarity between Earth's moon and the satellites observed around Saturn and Jupiter, including a transition in terminology in the middle of the ...


15

I think there are these reasons: Around the time of its decline, Chinese philosophy was quasi-religious, and exclusionary. That is, Mohism was actively suppressed by regimes that adopted other philosophies, such as Confucianism. Some of its doctrines became obsolete Some of its doctrines were absorbed by the other philosophies Exclusion Mohism arose ...


14

Nobody so far has pointed out the obvious: The first people to believe that slavery was evil and wrong were probably discontented slaves (as opposed to contented slaves). I would guess that nobody was as likely to notice and disapprove of his boss's unjust treatment of him as a slave would be. In ancient Rome the First Servile War was in Sicily from 135 ...


12

I think the best examples are provided by post-WW1 emancipation of women in some Muslim countries. The most salient episodes are Turkey (where Mustafa Kemal made women abandon hijab by requiring that prostitutes wear them) and Iran (where police removed hijabs by force). The result was that by 1970-ies women wore miniskirts and were going to colleges in ...


8

The quote refers to two things about Lord Acton. First, he was anything but prolific as an author: He is notorious for having rising to the heights of the historical profession without actually writing a book; the only work published in book form during his lifetime was his inaugural lecture when he became Regius professor of history at Cambridge.1 ...


7

Has its accuracy changed since? North Vietnam won over South Vietnam. Taliban won over Northern Alliance prior to US getting involved in 2001 Hezbollah effectively won against everyone (forced Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, and squeezed 'liberals' out of Lebanese politics). Depending on your definition of liberal, theocrats won in Iran in 1979. ...


7

What about Hammurabi's Code of Laws dating to before 1750 BCE, from the Epilogue of which the following quotes are taken: ...then Anu and Bel called by name me, Hammurabi, the exalted prince, who feared God, to bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil-doers; so that the strong should not harm the weak; so that I ...


7

Counterexamples: Spanish Civil War: one can argue that republicans were more liberal Chinese Civil War: one can argue that kuomitang was more liberal Russian Civil War: some anti-bolshevik factions were fighting under the slogan of support of the Russian Constituent Assembly - more liberal WW2: one can easily argue that USSR was less liberal than the 3rd ...


7

Its an interesting thesis. The problem is that "important" out he left himself essentially makes it a No true Scottsman argument. In other words, it isn't really a falsifiable statement. Any counter-argument I could possibly make can be dismissed as "not really an important war" (or failing that, you could try to argue against the liberality/fanacisim of the ...


7

It depends on which document written by a philosopher or equivalent secular agitator was the first to be co-opted by the secular revolutionaries of Europe (or elsewhere) and hence become a political document in its own right. Since ancient civic philosophies can become religions, Confucius' writings may not qualify as a political document in the fashion you ...


6

There are branches in philosophy and sociology of science that talk about Mode 1 vs. Mode 2 of scientific production. Mode 1 is the "classic" form of research, perfomed mostly in academia and driven by a linear improve-the-state-of-knowledge mentality that science has defined as its ethos for the last couple of centuries. Wikipedia defines it as: ...


6

I'll answer this with a firm, clear, "yes and no." First, in an important sense the question answers itself: for a shift to be seen as large scale, it will usually have to be big enough that it can't be reversed. If it can be reversed, then history will probably look back and say that it was just a small movement that ultimately failed. (Can you really ...


5

The answer would go something like this: Civilisation means some kind of organised society in which humans live in close proximity to each other. The humans, in the Freudian picture, are subject to internal drives, predominantly related to sex and generated by important figures such as mothers and fathers. In civilisations such as that of Vienna drives ...


5

Think of it this way. Contemporary to Mussolini and Hitler, every major European country had a "fascist" movement with a "national socialist" type ideology. Arrow Cross, Nasjonalsamling, Iron Guard, NSB, and so forth. All of them were variously "marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation, or victimhood and by compensatory cults of ...


5

I think you want to start by reading a little Dante. Here I saw Socrates and Plato, who in front of the others stands nearest to him; Democritus, who ascribes the world to chance; Diogenes, Anaxagoras, and Thales; Empedocles, Heraclitus and Zeno; and I saw the good collector of the qualities, Dioscorides, I mean, and I saw Orpheus, Tully and Linus ...


5

Plato's "Republic" comes to mind. Edit: as Yannis suggested, I've got to reason why Republic qualifies. A part of it discusses how to organize the most effective state, in what classes should its population divided into, how to organize educational system, who should take care of the kids, how to properly brainwash the populace into obedience, etc. This ...


5

I think Weinberg is wrong when asserting the struggle between the word and the image. I thin this paper by Atiyah may be informative regarding image-word interplay. Here's a relevant quote from it: "Let me try to explain my own view of the difference between geometry and algebra. Geometry is, of course, about space, of that there is no question. If I look ...


5

It is indeed difficult to find with a simple web-search reliable information about a scientifically mostly discredited idea, that nevertheless still enjoys enormous popularity in esoteric circles. Such a configuration seems to dominate the search algorithms. The French search term lapidaires is equally contaminated with very modern explanations about crafts ...


5

Within all probability, the most likely explanation seems to be that this is a mixup. The correct name should be: "Abū Muḥammad Jābir ibn Aflaḥ", a Muslim astronomer also known as latinised Geber. Explanation: My searches for the exact name and variations came up all empty. The text in question in English translation, names corrected, with added ...


4

Edward Gibbon, in "the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," lists the following reasons (among others): The five marks of the Roman decaying culture: Concern with displaying affluence instead of building wealth; Obsession with sex and perversions of sex; Art becomes freakish and sensationalistic instead of creative and original; Widening disparity ...


4

Edit: Now that the OP question has been reworded for clarity I will tip my hat to pokep as being closer to answering the intent of the inquiry. It was not clear to me originally where orality and myth came into the picture with literature in the question. Nonetheless, I'll leave my answer here in case it helps anyone. I'm afraid you're probably not going to ...


4

The Wikipedia article Myth of the flat Earth gives a general summary for the Western world as: According to Stephen Jay Gould, "there never was a period of 'flat Earth darkness' among scholars (regardless of how the public at large may have conceptualized our planet both then and now). ... Historian Jeffrey Burton Russell says the flat-Earth error ...


3

Ideological fascism was probably compatible with the idea of conquest and expansion but without requiring it. Political fascism (the ideology as applied) probably required some attempts at expansion for more populist reasoning. The theorists, particularly the pre-1933 theorists, were more focused on the organization of society and the revitalization of the ...


3

Abraham and his almost sacrifice of his son Isaac might be a good example. Even though we do not know whether is a real event or just a metaphor. Spartans at Thermopylae battle are a good example as well. They died because they had to fulfill a tradition (principle) where their society was built, which was to die instead of return defeated.


3

(Not counting rabbits, eggs, etc.) First, Lent is a time of penance, even more than Advent. It is not the time for beautiful ornaments, it is very understandable that it is more visually austere. some even cover or remove statues and ornaments. And Easter is not just Easter Sunday, the liturgy covers Palm Sunday and the Triduum (Holy Thursday + Good ...


3

The tract Defensor pacis (The Defender of Peace) laid the foundations of modern doctrines of sovereignty. It was written by Marsilius of Padua (Italian: Marsiglio da Padova), an Italian medieval scholar. It appeared in 1324 and provoked a storm of controversy that lasted through the century. The context of the work lies in the political struggle between ...


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