32 votes
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Please help identify these old coins found in Germany?

They are specifically Spanish 2 Escudo Doubloons minted between 1651 to 1773, or modern replicas - as they are identical, it would seem to suggest the latter. This Amazon seller 🕑 appears to have ...
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  • 434
21 votes

Please help identify these old coins found in Germany?

Note As @Volker Siegel said in the comments: Do not try to clean them any further. Dirt and patina may reduce the value somewhat, but traces of cleaning much more so. I am certain this is a ...
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  • 2,259
16 votes
Accepted

Where was the County of Thurn und Taxis located?

Nowhere. As at the time they were introduced to that circle, they were not landed. The family Tasso originated in Lombardy and made up their genealogy to include "were once rulers there". While the ...
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15 votes
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What does D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D stand for?

The inscription LEOPOLDUS II D·G·R·IMP·S·A·G·H·B·REX·A·A·B·L·D abbreviates the following: Leopoldus Secundus, Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus; Germaniae, Hungariae, Bohemiae rex; ...
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  • 95.9k
14 votes

Why were so many female members of Hapsburg family named Maria something?

Because they are Catholic. No other reason. Doesn't matter if you are a boy or girl. It's very common practise to give children many baptismal names, including Maria. To both girls and boys. Perhaps ...
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  • 17.6k
12 votes

Who were the successors of the Roman Empire?

Case for Italy, the Vatican, or both Italy was the place where the Roman Empire originated and Rome is located. They still speak a language directly descended from Latin. Rome was the most important ...
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  • 31.9k
12 votes
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How were the borders of the Holy Roman Empire established?

The Holy Roman Empire, as an "empire", did not have a territory of its own. It must be understood in the context of feudalism: a number of princes/kings/bishops/whatever were tied, through sworn ...
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11 votes
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What is the origin of the black/devil riders?

You are referring to the Schwarze Reiters (i.e. black riders), named after the dark armour they wore. This was a type of cavalry that appeared in Germany after the decline of the medieval lancers, but ...
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  • 95.9k
10 votes
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Where was the ruling seat of East Francia located under Henry the Fowler?

Wherever Henry the Fowler happened to be. During this period, the kingdom was basically ruled from wherever its king held court. There was no single "ruling seat" per se since the King tended to move ...
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  • 95.9k
10 votes

Did Gustavus Adolphus ever speak of making himself Emperor?

The problem with doing that is that there was an established precedent in Western Europe that an "emperor" had to be proclaimed as such by the pope. Even Napoleon, who held a popular referendum on his ...
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  • 110k
10 votes
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What are these "Papal States" in Germany after 1648?

Those were the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. Germany as we know it today did not really exist in 1648 - the territories in question were part of the Holy Roman Empire, a highly ...
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  • 95.9k
10 votes
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Who or what were the Nassadista?

I started on this as it looked like a pleasant naval mystery. I'm providing a Summary Answer above, and below my method for reaching that conclusion as well as other relevant information. A lot of my ...
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9 votes

How were the borders of the Holy Roman Empire established?

You have confused the very real changes that occurred to the borders over the 170 years from roughly 1520 to 1700 with the concept that the borders were vague throughout that time. That span of years ...
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9 votes

Was Marie Antoinette considered a fully legitimate bride for the heir apparent to the French throne in 1770?

As a bride, Marie Antoniette might have been disliked by some due to the longstanding conflict between the two dynasties. But in terms of legitimacy, I'm not sure what could be illegitimate about ...
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  • 95.9k
9 votes

Why didn't continental eurotpeans aid the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms (Mercia, Northumbria, Wessex and East Anglia) against the invading Danes and Norse?

Who are they going to ask for help? How? What's in it for the possible helpers? The Vikings raided everywhere possible. From Iceland (which they colonized) to the Black Sea. The holy Roman empire didn'...
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9 votes

Is the story of Peter Niers brutal execution authentic?

There is actually a contemporary account of Niers's crimes and execution. It can be found in a short pamphlet published shorty after his death: "Warhafftige Newe Zeittungen / Erschröcklich unnd ...
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  • 542
8 votes
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What is the term for a person who surveys the land and relays messages from a noble to his governed village?

You have somewhat answered your own question. The Reeve and Bailiff were essentially the same job in Medieval England. The Reeve was a person that oversaw the land and crops and was in charge of the ...
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8 votes

Was there a law forbidding kingdoms in the Holy Roman Empire?

Originally, there were seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor, three ecclesiastical, and four temporal. These were called "prince-electors," and were the highest ranking dignitaries of the Holy ...
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  • 103k
8 votes
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What language was spoken between Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian I

They likely spoke a combination of German and French. It's not entirely clear what they were speaking while teaching their respective mother tongues to each other - most likely Latin, maybe Flemish, ...
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8 votes

Was there ever support for any persons outside of the empire to be elected Holy Roman Emperor?

The election of 1519 is the best example, as it was disputed between King Francis I of France and Charles, King of Spain and Archduke of Austria. By "dispute" we mean "who has deeper bribing pockets"...
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  • 3,812
8 votes
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Which is more correct, Carlos I or Carlos V?

I believe your subtext is incorrect - "most popular" is an inappropriate approach to take to correct usage. The correct usage, in either language, should be determined by which of the two roles is ...
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7 votes

Did Gustavus Adolphus ever speak of making himself Emperor?

Actually papal consent was no longer required. On July 16, 1338, six of the seven electors met at Rhense and declared that election by a majority of electors was enough to make someone King of the ...
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  • 2,098
7 votes

What statuses did Black Africans have in the court and royal family of Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen and do their descendants survive?

In any large population there are likely to be a small proportion of people with highly exotic ancestry, being descended from people who lived far away a relatively short number of generations earlier....
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  • 16.9k
7 votes
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When did Nuremberg adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

According to this source, Nürnberg adopted the calendar in 1699:
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6 votes

How did member states of the Holy Roman Empire justify only including part of their land inside it?

The HRE was not a state in the modern sense, and neither were the components (as HorusKol) pointed out. The various nobles had hereditary rights with regards to the Empire. They were tied to a title ...
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  • 16k
5 votes
Accepted

When did Frankfurt am Main adopt the Gregorian Calendar?

Frankfurt adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1700. When Frankfurt adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1700, the new date of the Frankfurt fair conflicted with the date of the Leipzig fair. - ...
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  • 95.9k
5 votes

Were the "hussars" that Jan Sobieski used at the battle of Vienna actually elite troops?

Polish hussars are not the same as Russian hussars, entirely! Polish winged hussars are a kind of (super)heavy cavalry, while Russian hussars and hussars in other countries (Hungary, Germany etc) are ...
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  • 31.9k
5 votes

Monarchies with built-in rotation

There is an example at least similar to what you search: the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) in the Holy Roman Empire 1648-1803. After some chaos in the aftermath of the refomation ...
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  • 476
5 votes

When did the Holy Roman Empire collapse?

The Holy Roman Empire (of the German Nation) officially ceased to exist one fine day in August of 1806 when Francis II went to the Imperial Diet and resigned. He of course continued to be the Emperor ...
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5 votes

When did the Holy Roman Empire collapse?

The Holy Roman Empire was a bit more unified during even its latest phase than many answers have said. After the thirty ears war many German sates rallied to support he Emperor in the period ...
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