30

tl; dr At least some of the archers who fought at the Battle of Agincourt almost were almost certainly suffering from dysentery contracted at Harfleur. However, most of the worst affected had been shipped home to England before Henry left Harfleur for Calais. Is there any evidence in the chronicles of the time that some or most of the English & ...


25

19th CENTURY HISTORIANS The term Hundred Years' War originated in the early 19th century. The Hundred Years War has become the established name for the Anglo-French conflicts that happened between 1337 and 1453. Although the designation does not refer to an actual event—the term was first used in France in the early 19th century — it usefully ...


18

The legal situation was not as clear as the question assumes, because neither of the reasons cited were valid at the time. While people often apply Salic Law to the dispute in 1328, this is ahistorical - Salic Law had long been defunct by then. Royal succession was not fixed in legislation, but instead shaped by customs that had evolved over the centuries. ...


16

According to Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families, 2nd Edition . Michael(III) Earl of Suffolk was a commander of the Rear Guard of the Kings Army, from September through October 1415. According to the wiki entry he was born 1394, died 25 October 1415, so was not exactly a seasoned commander, having inherited his title only 7 ...


14

Short answer The two accounts cited in your question are not so much contradictory as very short versions of what was a lengthy series of negotiations over many months. The 1360 Treaty of Bretigny, which ceded sovereignty over large parts of France to Edward III, was an important part of Henry V’s demands but the English King wanted more than just French ...


14

Apparently a couple of the chronicles from the time are available online. From the contemporary French Chronicle of Jean Froissart: ... for an accident befell [Edward III] and all his army, who were then before Chartres, that much humbled him, and bent his courage. During the time that the French commissioners were passing backwards and forwards from the ...


12

SHORT ANSWER 'Stay in the kitchen', yes (more or less), but this relates to a prophecy made by Catherine de La Rochelle, and had nothing to do with the battlefield. Joan of Arc said very little about the role of women that we know of. According to accounts from her trial, she spoke mostly about herself, distancing herself not from the battlefield but from ...


10

The Medieval ages, and in turn the 100 years war, was a politically a different beast than war as we are used to it in the modern era. During both world wars we see a declaration by majors powers declaring that a state of war now exists between countries and their belligerent allies. This is how the world at large waged war and is the common way that we ...


9

As I understand it, we know the positions of very few of the participants at the Battle of Agincourt. There is even some considerable debate about exactly how the English army was arranged on the field (we don't even know exactly where the battle was fought!). I just did a quick check in the index of Anne Curry's The Battle of Agincourt: Sources and ...


7

Biographies of both Mowat and Kingsford are in agreement that the final round of envoys to Paris, in spring 1415, negotiated in apparent good faith and were willing to relent on Henry's claim to the French throne in return for concessions beyond that to which the French were willing to agree. The counter terms from the French were apparently such to ...


7

At the time both England and France recognized the authority of the Church. Were there any attempt at having the Pope invited to adjudicate the succession amiably? At first the pope tried to arbitrate the dispute, but it didn't go anywhere. A few years after the war began, the English King Edward III allied himself with Emperor Louis IV, who named Edward ...


7

In the end progress in a war like this was made by capturing castles and cities, or keeping them. (the focus on big battles can be misleading) Bertrand du Guesclin did both. If it wasn't for him the english would have conquered Rennes and Nantes (and thus held Bretagne). He also advised charles to use a scorched earth tactic against the invasion of Richard ...


7

One needs to remember that France had a multiple of England's population, and armed forces during the Hundred Years' War. Thus, the surprising thing is not that England failed, but that it came close to succeeding. England did try to "overrun" France after the victory of Poitiers. But King John was a weak king, and the quality of French leadership actually ...


6

The answer to both questions is yes. To quote specific examples, the French won major battles after "bad", or rainy, weather at the Battle of Saint-Omer and the Battle of Cocherel. The English won the Battle of Auberoche against the numerical odds (5:1 in that case) in good weather. However, the dataset is probably too small to draw any conclusions as to ...


5

The following quotes, from English Medieval Knight 1400-1500 By Christopher Gravett on Google Books, states that retained Men-At-Arms would have worn their lords colours. Great lords employed knights and men-at-arms in private retinues, indeed sometimes so many that they formed private armies. Under this system of ‘livery and maintenance’, the retainers ...


4

Englishmen, as well as their Gascon allies wore the red St George's cross stitched over; front and back so as to distinguish each other. Anyone found 'posing' with one who wasn't one of them scored a death sentence. It was an ordinance given by Richard II that every member of the army, lord and archer must wear it over their armour/clothing. Sources: ...


4

Ordinary soldiers did not wear emblems or colors. Units had pennants or flags. Knights might have an emblem, but that would normally be the house of the knight, not anyone else. Here is a picture illustrating a battle from the 100 Years War. As you can see they use flags and pennants:


4

How the English nobility felt about their longbowmen can mostly only be inferred from how they were treated rather than specific statements made about them by nobles. The actions of both King Edward III and his son Edward the Black Prince would indicate that longbowmen were highly valued, though this does not automatically mean respect. During his reign, ...


2

Referring to the Black Book of Edward IV - it's drawn from his own household accounts, so the limits to the retainers allowed are the limits Edward himself set. Remember that Edward had only managed to get, hold, then regain the throne by force-of-arms but he was very well aware that the nobles had their own retainers and that it was possible to lose the ...


1

These figures are stated in: Joshua BARNES. 1688. The History of that Most Victorious Monarch Edward III, King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland and First Founder of the Most Noble Order of the Garter: Being a Full and Exact Account of the Life and Death of the said King, Together with That of his Most renowned Son Edward, Prince of Wales and of ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible