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19

As legend says, after they lost Battle of Kosovo (1389) Serb units, most notably their light cavalry, have spread to Hungary and then further over Europe. In Medieval Hungary, these became known as hussars since about 1432 (Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, p. 306); they were greatly developed by Matthias Corvinus (1443-1490)....


14

According to the wikipedia article on the topic: The Mongol vanguard was killed nearly to a man, with Thomas of Split writing: "the Hungarians immediately charged into them and did battle. They cut down a great many of them and pushed the rest back over the bridge, causing them to be drowned in the river." The Hungarians left some soldiers to guard the ...


13

One reason was that the Prague Spring leaders paid "lip service" to Communism and Soviet rule throughout. In essence, they weren't (officially) trying to overthrow the Soviet regime so much as they were trying to "modify" it. This had some acquiescence of the Soviet Union, who was trying a modest series of reforms (post Khrushchev), until things "got out of ...


11

Retrospectively, the only answer to your question is: "because of poor grasp of the local political and cultural context". In the 1920s, dominant countries were organized on the notion of nation state. This was a relatively recent development; for instance, Germany had formally existed only for 50 years or so at that time. Other countries had turned into ...


9

Only one person can be involved in a personal union (hence the name). The trouble with being in a personal union – that is, sharing your monarch with a different country – is that your singular monarch might make choices that serve the other country's interests at the expense of your own. A personal union can also lead to a permanent union, something the ...


9

The emperors have often spoken many languages and Hungarian was an important one so one may find numerous Habsburg rulers who spoke Hungarian, too. For example, Maximillian II fluently spoke Spanish, French, Latin, Hungarian, and Italian. Maria Theresa spoke German, Italian, French, Spanish, Latin, Czech and she added Hungarian before she became the empress....


9

Google search revealed that the one on the left is Sándor Garbai. (from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Garbai_S%C3%A1ndor_%281919%29_%28cropped%29.jpg) The one to his right seems kind of similar to an individual named Béla Kun, but I am not fully sure. [EDIT]: This Wiki page on Béla Kun has same image (from different angle I suppose)...


8

(original image by Wikimedia Commons user San Jose) If you look at a topographic map of Europe, the reason should be self-evident: the easiest land route from northern/western Europe passes through the gap between the Alps and the Carpathians. Hungary sits in the middle of that gap; historic Hungary occupied effectively all of it. This same geography ...


8

Here's what I've collected from various sources up to this time: Hungarian Holy Lance Historians agree that one of them belonged to Saint Stephen, first king of Hungary. Otto III took a crown for Stephen I to Gniezno and it was sent from there to Hungary, but no sources I could find clarify if the spear came to Hungary the same way. This "Polish route" is ...


7

Semaphore's hypothesis was right. I found interesting resource which tells us that islands actually had been considered terra nullius till 1926. Until the year 1926 the islands had been considered "Terra Nullius", or other words, "No Man's Land". However, following practices of Canada, the Soviet Union claimed that all land in the sector between ...


7

It's a generic Hungarian cowboy wearing a traditional Szűr, rather than anyone in particular. (h/t JustCal for this specific image.) I checked whether it might Széchenyi, Batthyány, Kossuth, or one of the other Hungarian leaders who regularly pop up as place names. The beard style matches none of them.


6

The apparent reason for the creation of these Slavic "multinational" states was to create states that were strong enough to act as "buffer states" against Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria (Germany's allies in World War I). Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania would, in fact go on to form the "Little Entente", with which France later formed an alliance. So ...


6

One of the sources quoted by the Wikipedia article is the United Nations Report of the Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary. If the document is genuine*, I would be inclined to give it much more credence than an unsourced sentence in an introductory paragraph to a Wikipedia article. On page 150, the report states that, on the evening of 23 October: ...


5

Not as precise answer as I'd like, but it might lead you to the correct answer with further research. Googling for "hungarian heraldry crescent 13th century" yields at least one crescent, from the Sas coat of arms, which indeed has a crescent in it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sas_coat_of_arms Sas or Szász (origin: Slavic for "Saxon", Polish: Sas, ...


5

Khrushchev gave his speech to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956. The contents of the speech was subsequently disseminated to a select group by being read to groups of party activists and “closed” local party meetings. Even though knowledge of the speech was limited to a select group, that ...


5

Bulgarians and Hungarians actually have very different histories. Neither one of them really could be said to have ever been Turks, although they may have borrowed some things from Medieval Turkic-speakers. Bulgarians: The current Wikipedia entry diplomatically lists 3 cultural ancestral components for Bulgarians: Thracian citizens left over from the time ...


5

I don't think their current majority is an insurmountable problem for any immigration theory. At roughly the same time the coastal German tribes were migrating to England, and the southern Slavic people were migrating into the Balkans. Both are clearly a majority in those locations today. My main problem with the immigrationist theory is that it (very very ...


5

Jadwiga was better choice for Polish nobility, as they could have much stronger influence on her, without having to deal with Hungarians. Politic priorities of Poland and Hungary were different - the main problem of Poland those times were Teutonic Knights at the northern border. Hungarians had simply no interest in that matter. This way if Mary became ...


5

I cannot offer definite proof right now, but I'm almost certain (von) Mises was an Austrian citizen at least sometimes before his forced emigration to Switzerland. Consider e.g. this: He was working for the national chamber of commerce and consulting for the Austrian government. Such roles are usually filled by citizens even today. Lots of people kept their ...


5

RFE Hungarian desk was obliged to not foment revolution, "Special Guidance No. 26 of March 27, addressing the emerging ferment in the Communist world, cautioned, “There is no likelihood of military action by the West to liberate [the East European] peoples.”'; instead their responsibility was to, as of 'September 26, 1956, policy advisor Griffith defined RFE’...


5

I wonder if it sheds any light on this decision if we compare the examples cited above with the one instance where the opposite happened- Galicia? Poles and Ukrainians were intermixed to a degree that would induce a headache in anyone trying to draw a "fair" borderEthnic Map of Poland (for the purposes of this discussion please consider "galicia" to be ...


5

The precise wording Attila the Hun in English has been in use for at least a couple of centuries but its use in academic writing (at least) was somewhat inconsistent until fairly recently. The earliest use of Attila the Hun I've found is in William Julius Mikel's introduction to his 1776 translation of The Lusiad by Luis de Camoes. In the same sentence, he ...


5

The Battle of Kosovo took place on June 15, 1389 Question: Why didn't the Hungarians help the battle of Kosovo? Short Answer: Hungary was a powerful country but had it's own troubles to deal with prior to dealing with the Ottomans. The Serbians were Eastern Orthodox Christians, Hungarians were Catholic. Thus they were not traditional allies. ...


5

There was no really such pre 1800. As Samuel Russel points out, the modern concept of nations was born only during and after the French revolution. Hungary and Transylvania from the late medieval times were part of the Habsburg empire, but they were not united until 1867. The official languages of Hungary were the following: 1000-1784: Latin 1784-1836: ...


5

This is not answerable with satisfactory comprehensiveness. The time before settlement and adoption of Christianity around 1000 is just too poorly documented. But apart from what Wikipedia presents in Old Hungarian script and some information in History of the Hungarian language, this is probably the secondary source coming most closely to what the question ...


4

Effective political lobbying and influence by political activists by the Czechs and the Yugoslav committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Committee Both Yugoslav Committee and the Czech already had the ear of important people moving into the Paris conference.


4

Hussars in the Napoleonic era were a reconisence and harassment force. As a general rule, they were not used as the hammer in engagements. Though they and uhlans, a polish form of lancers are light cavalry, the lancers were used as shock troops as seen in the Battle of Somosierra rather than as harassment forces. The use of a dragoon changed through the ...


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