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42

Three factors. 1) The death of Ögedei Khan forced the hordes rampaging through Europe under Subutai to break off and return for the Kuraltai to choose a successor. Interrupting their hard-earned momentum, and giving the Europeans time to regroup, recover, reflect and prepare, was the deciding factor - also, Talabuga was not the general Subutai was. 2) ...


17

Interpretations are called for here — and these are necessarily opinionated to a degree. From a recent Polish perspective, it might seem rather simple – and one-sided: There are strong indications that Beijing's position, which opposed armed intervention, had a significant influence on the Kremlin. This was by no means out of warm attitudes towards Gomułka ...


15

According to the wikipedia article on the topic: The Mongol vanguard was killed nearly to a man, with Thomas of Split writing: "the Hungarians immediately charged into them and did battle. They cut down a great many of them and pushed the rest back over the bridge, causing them to be drowned in the river." The Hungarians left some soldiers to guard the ...


10

Retrospectively, the only answer to your question is: "because of poor grasp of the local political and cultural context". In the 1920s, dominant countries were organized on the notion of nation state. This was a relatively recent development; for instance, Germany had formally existed only for 50 years or so at that time. Other countries had turned into ...


9

Not as precise answer as I'd like, but it might lead you to the correct answer with further research. Googling for "hungarian heraldry crescent 13th century" yields at least one crescent, from the Sas coat of arms, which indeed has a crescent in it. Sas or Szász (origin: Slavic for "Saxon", Polish: Sas, Hungarian: Szász, Romanian: Saş) ...


9

The emperors have often spoken many languages and Hungarian was an important one so one may find numerous Habsburg rulers who spoke Hungarian, too. For example, Maximillian II fluently spoke Spanish, French, Latin, Hungarian, and Italian. Maria Theresa spoke German, Italian, French, Spanish, Latin, Czech and she added Hungarian before she became the empress....


9

Google search revealed that the one on the left is Sándor Garbai. (from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Garbai_S%C3%A1ndor_%281919%29_%28cropped%29.jpg) The one to his right seems kind of similar to an individual named Béla Kun, but I am not fully sure. [EDIT]: This Wiki page on Béla Kun has same image (from different angle I suppose)...


9

(original image by Wikimedia Commons user San Jose) If you look at a topographic map of Europe, the reason should be self-evident: the easiest land route from northern/western Europe passes through the gap between the Alps and the Carpathians. Hungary sits in the middle of that gap; historic Hungary occupied effectively all of it. This same geography ...


9

A very important reason was the death of Genghis Khan, the "maximum leader" in 1227. This caused his Empire to be divided into four "Khanates" (see bottom of link), Russia (yellow), the Middle East (purple), Central Asia (red), and China-Mongolia (green) in the map above. None of these entities had the power of the whole. More to the point, most empires ...


9

It's a generic Hungarian cowboy wearing a traditional Szűr, rather than anyone in particular. (h/t JustCal for this specific image.) I checked whether it might Széchenyi, Batthyány, Kossuth, or one of the other Hungarian leaders who regularly pop up as place names. The beard style matches none of them.


8

Semaphore's hypothesis was right. I found interesting resource which tells us that islands actually had been considered terra nullius till 1926. Until the year 1926 the islands had been considered "Terra Nullius", or other words, "No Man's Land". However, following practices of Canada, the Soviet Union claimed that all land in the sector between ...


7

The apparent reason for the creation of these Slavic "multinational" states was to create states that were strong enough to act as "buffer states" against Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria (Germany's allies in World War I). Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania would, in fact go on to form the "Little Entente", with which France later formed an alliance. So ...


7

One of the sources quoted by the Wikipedia article is the United Nations Report of the Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary. If the document is genuine*, I would be inclined to give it much more credence than an unsourced sentence in an introductory paragraph to a Wikipedia article. On page 150, the report states that, on the evening of 23 October: ...


6

The precise wording Attila the Hun in English has been in use for at least a couple of centuries but its use in academic writing (at least) was somewhat inconsistent until fairly recently. The earliest use of Attila the Hun I've found is in William Julius Mikel's introduction to his 1776 translation of The Lusiad by Luis de Camoes. In the same sentence, he ...


6

Exact numbers are not known but an estimate is given by historian Ágnes Tóth at around 10 000 ethnic Germans that returned to Hungary. How many really is an answer that has to be postponed, since this is an unresolved question even in the latest of recent dissertation projects. Cf. Sebastian Sparwasser: "Identität im Spannungsfeld von Zwangsmigration ...


6

There was no really such pre 1800. As Samuel Russel points out, the modern concept of nations was born only during and after the French revolution. Hungary and Transylvania from the late medieval times were part of the Habsburg empire, but they were not united until 1867. The official languages of Hungary were the following: 1000-1784: Latin 1784-1836: ...


6

This is not answerable with satisfactory comprehensiveness. The time before settlement and adoption of Christianity around 1000 is just too poorly documented. But apart from what Wikipedia presents in Old Hungarian script and some information in History of the Hungarian language, this is probably the secondary source coming most closely to what the question ...


5

Khrushchev gave his speech to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956. The contents of the speech was subsequently disseminated to a select group by being read to groups of party activists and “closed” local party meetings. Even though knowledge of the speech was limited to a select group, that ...


5

I don't think their current majority is an insurmountable problem for any immigration theory. At roughly the same time the coastal German tribes were migrating to England, and the southern Slavic people were migrating into the Balkans. Both are clearly a majority in those locations today. My main problem with the immigrationist theory is that it (very very ...


5

I wonder if it sheds any light on this decision if we compare the examples cited above with the one instance where the opposite happened- Galicia? Poles and Ukrainians were intermixed to a degree that would induce a headache in anyone trying to draw a "fair" borderEthnic Map of Poland (for the purposes of this discussion please consider "galicia" to be ...


5

Effective political lobbying and influence by political activists by the Czechs and the Yugoslav committee. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslav_Committee Both Yugoslav Committee and the Czech already had the ear of important people moving into the Paris conference.


5

RFE Hungarian desk was obliged to not foment revolution, "Special Guidance No. 26 of March 27, addressing the emerging ferment in the Communist world, cautioned, “There is no likelihood of military action by the West to liberate [the East European] peoples.”'; instead their responsibility was to, as of 'September 26, 1956, policy advisor Griffith defined RFE’...


5

Well, there was trade between the Mali Empire and the rest of the world via a Sahel camel-borne trade route established and run by the Berber tribes of that region. We know at least a few non-Berbers traveled that route as well as travelers or pilgrims, but all the direct trade would almost certainly be carried out by the Berbers, not Europeans. The ...


4

The crescent is likely from the old coat of arms of Croatia, as pointed out in de Bernardy's answer. The illustration is probably of Coloman's charge against Mongols which led to securing the bridge in the initial stage of the battle. Coloman was the duke of Slavonia, so it is likely the troops would carry the local standard. Slavonia was commonly ...


4

The Death of Ogedei Khan in December of 1241 is the most attributed reason for the discontinuation of the invasion of Europe. Batu, son of Jochi, son of Genghis was the supreme commander over the European assault and a potential candidate for the successor of Ogedei. He knew he was less favorable and probably never going to be great khan so he wanted to ...


3

According to https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/new-evidence-romania-and-the-warsaw-pact-1955-1989#sthash.fQcgY9zu.dpuf "He [Emil Bodnaras, Romanian Minister of Transport and Communications, a key figure in the Romanian Party's support for Soviet intervention in Hungary] was probably instrumental in making arrangements for the detention of Imre Nagy ...


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