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57

Silver means white. The art and science of classic European flag design is called "Heraldry". Classic heraldry refers to color as "Tincture". Tinctures are separated into 5 colors: Azure (blue) Gules (red) Purpure (purple) Sable (black) Vert (green) and 2 metals: Or (yellow) Argent (white) In classic medieval sculpting artworks depicting heraldry (like ...


22

That's a really good question. As far as I know, there isn't yet a definitive answer, although I haven't kept fully up to date with the subject in recent years.. In Care and Conservation of Manuscripts: Proceedings of the First International Seminar on the Care and Conservation of Manuscripts Held at the University of Copenhagen 25th-26th April 1994, ...


19

If the kiss was between unmarried, heterosexual youths the boy would be criminally liable to the girl's father, guardian, or another male family member. "... if a woman was an aggrieved party and owned a right of prosecution, she was to put her claim into the hands of a man." [Byock, "Viking Age Iceland" pp. 317] After all, "giving away a daughter in ...


13

No expert scribe about to invest months of time, yards of prepared vellum, and scarce pigments would want to skimp on the black ink. In the middle ages, iron gall ink was the dominant standard for writing on vellum and paper alike. Nearly all black ink in colonial North America was of this type (Black Writing Ink of the Colonial Period, William J. Barrow). ...


13

No. The Icelandic flag never had any actual silver colour in it and was never meant to contain any silver. In the quote argent is meant to convey just white. It is used in an outdated and imprecise form of traditional descriptive language. While it's true that: The word for white in Latin is "albus", not argentum. Argentum means silver. In heraldry ...


11

Short answer Wine was imported but was often scarce and always expensive. It was a liturgical requirement, but it was not one that was always (or even often) met without bending the rules a little. When supplies ran out or low, substitutes were used, though by the first half of the 13th century the popes were clamping down on this practice. Given the ...


9

As a person who has lived in Iceland and Finland, and talked in great detail with people alive at the time, I can tell you that the British set up machine gun emplacements before dawn in Reykjavik. The populace had no choice, but largely welcomed them. Coastal watch soldiers were billeted in remote farmhouses, and many of them formed romantic attachments ...


8

To my knowledge (though please correct me if I'm wrong) there is no extant historical account of the first Norse settlers in Iceland encountering any previously settled peoples. Quite the opposite actually. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis of samples taken from skeletal remnants of the medieval Icelandic population tells a very different story. The ...


7

The only honest answer to this question is We don't know. To state that rape, or any crime, or any activity, was more or less prevalent at one period of time than another requires written records to be kept. However, we have few records about crimes committed during the Middle Ages. IIRC, any form of records about common crimes & other activities only ...


6

In 1976 Tim Severin proved with the Brendan Voyage it was possible for Irish monks not only to go to Iceland, but all the way to the Americas. He did have a couple of advantages the ancients didn't have: He had the latest navigation equipment He knew Iceland and the Americas were there He had modern safety equipment, in case something went wrong He could ...


6

The Invasion of Iceland was of a character wholly different than the German annexations and invasions of 1938-1940 and it has been justifiably left in the dustbin of history. The "invasion" was by 700 ill-equipped, ill-prepared, and very seasick British marines who walked off the ship, onto a dock and talked to the police officers waiting for them. The ...


6

It looks like he did spend those years in Iceland. There are a few pages discussing his time there from 1515 in volume 3 of Historisk arkiv (Gbooks), p403-406 De tre nordiske rigers historie under Hans by Carl Ferdinand Allen (Gbooks) pages 143-144 suggests that he did spend time there (without much detail about his stay). The phrasing of a sentence in ...


5

Runes are primarily designed for being carved in wood (which is why there are so many vertical, straight lines, but no horizontal lines and very few curved ones). Wood does not survive very well, but sometimes it reaches us, there have been huge finds of pieces carved with the most mundane things - messages from telling people to go home, prayers and love ...


4

The practice seem more or less untestified outside the Eyrbyggja saga. The saga deals with religious matters to an unusual degree, and is in fact one of the more importantsources for religious practices, even if it was written by a Christian long after the events and should be treated carefully. Thus, questions about how common this was can not be answered. ...


3

Iceland was economically isolated by its almost complete lack of trees for wood and pitch. Once the ships involved in the Landsnam operation had worn out -- this is the immigration period to which you referred -- only Norwegian-owned ships visited Iceland, and then only for occasional commerce (these visits required staying the whole winter). Through several ...


3

Literary Sources are Unreliable, Legal Sources are Unreliable, Legal Records are Unreliable. Let's start with literary sources. If rape shows up a lot in literary sources, it could mean that it's common in life. Or it could mean that people felt that stories with rape were more interesting or illustrated an important concept. I'm sure that much is ...


3

The better question to ask would have been 'Who discovered Iceland?'. In this case, where we have to think about Pytheas, I would argue for 'No', while my answer regarding Naddoðr would be the same. Regarding my own question, the answer that seems most plausible is that we don't know. Pytheas The main and primary problem when we think about Pytheas today is ...


3

At least two processes were used, according to Byock's Viking Age Iceland. Bishops were at sometimes elected at the Althing. This was the case for Iceland's first bishop, Isleif, in 1055; in 1056 he traveled to be consecrated by the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. Isleif's eldest son Gizur was also elected bishop at the Althing, and also traveled to be ...


2

The Church has always required that the matter for transubstantiation be wine made from grapes. This has be codified under: Can. 924 §1. The most holy eucharistic sacrifice must be offered with bread and with wine in which a little water must be mixed. §2. The bread must be only wheat [not barley, etc.] and recently made so that there is no danger of ...


2

Farley Mowat thinks so: Mowat believes that settlement of Iceland began early in the first millennium AD. After the end of Roman rule in Britain, unrest and military threats to Alba from the Scoti in the west and the Vikings in the north resulted in widespread settlement of Iceland during the 5th to 7th centuries by fleeing Albans. [...] The ...


2

I wanted to comment on your question, and though my reputation is great enough to answer, it is not great enough to comment (allowing me to foolishly answer, but only wisely comment, hmm?). The article states (thank you Google translate): Since rape was such an extremely serious crime in the Middle Ages, there is little to suggest that it may have been ...


1

I feel that it is necessary to separately answer this part of the original question, as it actually ties in with the original question in a profound way: I would also like to include that island nations like Greenland were populated by natives, without any known landbridge to North America. I have little knowledge on natives and biology and what they ...


1

It looks like they were in fact in use as late as the 17th century by rural folk, although there is some doubt as to how ancient at least some of those runes were. The more practical ones seem to center on fishing and herding activities, which indicates the kind of people who were using them. Since the finds are in relatively recent books, you could argue ...


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