62

tl;dr Sea control is good. Sea denial is not that much worse. Sinking an enemy ship at the cost of significant damage to your own is less desirable than keeping your enemy holed up in port (where his ships do little to no harm and your own ships stay undamaged). As basically all naval strategy questions, this one puts too much emphasis on "defeating ...


48

This depends a bit on the definition of "match": modern rules 90 minutes kicking, level playfield, three referees, 11 players on each side, two nicely timbered goals, etc. Most popular accounts now seem to imply this. If it's that, then it's a resounding no. But bringing a ball to the trenches (in itself quite an astonishing thing to do?) and playing with ...


40

A Russian revolution caused by the Bolsheviks was most definitely the goal of the Germans when they allowed Lenin to pass through their lands. Germany wished to undermine, or end, the Russian war effort and sending Lenin back was done for that purpose. If true, who came up with the idea and was there any consideration that a communist Russia could ...


23

Helmet spikes and flanges were originally intended to deflect saber blows. Those on the Pickelhaube are somewhat stylized, but they still served the original purpose. Source: German Wikipedia. I thought I remembered something similar from the English Civil War, but a bit of googling got me nothing.


18

I'll just try to put some further tidbits into the three questions. "Lenins Rückkehr nach Russland 1917: Die deutschen Akten" has from Page 39 on a telegram conversation between the German ambassador in Bern von Romberg and the Auswärtige Amt (Foreign Bureau). It starts with von Romberg 7th September 1914: Russian, who seems to have contact with ...


16

By naming Russian mobilisation as the initial aggression. One needs to look no further than the German declaration of war itself. That document succinctly laid out Berlin's position that the Russian mobilisation was an existential threat as well as an act of aggression towards Germany. Presenting Germany as a peaceful mediator, it claims that: [Russia] ...


16

1) 1897 The earliest reference I could find is Christoph von Tiedemann on p. 42 of Persönliche Erinnerungen an den Fürsten Bismarck (S. Hirze, 1898, link) based on a 1897 talk: "ich habe nicht schlafen können, ich habe die ganze Nacht gehaßt", sagte er mir eines Morgens Von Tiedemann knew von Bismarck personally and spent a lot of time with him. The ...


15

Hitler says early in Mein Kampf I studied Bismarck's exceptional legislation in its original concept, its operation and its results. He praises various policies and the diplomacy of Bismarck's government, and towards the end declaims What miserable pigmies our sham statesmen in Germany appear by comparison with him. And how nauseating it is to ...


15

Because if they did, they would have been playing into German hands. The Germans did not plan to match the British navy. What they did was create a Risk Fleet about 60% of the British fleet, one that could defeat the British fleet under ideal conditions (e.g. operating in home waters where the Germans would enjoy the benefit of mines, shore batteries, etc.)....


15

The maps are simplifications for a very complicated setup. As such they are misleading in several ways. Spatially they represent large swathes of land with a limited number of gradients to ease identifications of majorities. Which inhabitants are located where is necessarily less precise than the situation on the ground. Temporally these maps show just one ...


15

First, for clarity, it is worth noting the commanding officers of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in December 1914: Sir John French was the Commander-in-Chief of the BEF. Under him were Lieutenant-General Sir Douglas Haig, Commander BEF I Corps General Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien, Commander BEF II Corps. His chief of staff was Brigadier General G.T. ...


14

All legal privileges of the aristocracy were abolished when the Weimar Republic was founded. The current Federal Republic of Germany does not recognize any nobility but allows the use of hereditary titles as part of a name, unlike Austria where even that is banned. As for individual Kingdoms and other entities, their fates are as follows: Kingdoms were ...


14

(Presumably the question rules out the many co-belligerents of the Central Powers, for which Wikipedia has a detailed article.) The Kingdom of Romania is possibly the best example. In fact, the Romanians technically were allied to the Central Powers - they were a secret party to the Triple Alliance. At the start of the Great War, King Carol I wanted to ...


11

(The maps are from an Atlas Obscura article on Isochronic maps and the wikipedia entry on German Railways.) Here's an isochronic map centered on London from the early 1880s to give a feel of how long it would take ~20 years later: The German rail network in 1861 suggests there already was a track nearby (you can see a track between Eisenach and Bamberg if ...


11

This is indeed a hold-over from he propaganda of the First World War. Although the term started its career earlier. Compare the official definition for Kaiser on the Wikipedia disambiguation page: Kaiser is an imperial title meaning "emperor", which is mainly used in German language; in late antiquity, the German Kaiser emerged from the Latin caesar. ...


11

On the British side, no one was court-martialed. This also appears to be true for the French, Belgians and Germans. French and Belgian participation in the Christmas truce was, in any case, very limited, and there was no truce on the Eastern Front (as cipricus notes in a comment, Russian Christmas is in January). Turkish troops actually upped their attacks ...


10

Update Here is a 1931 overview map of Bavaria (click on the link Zur historischen Karte im DigiTool-Viewer) appearing to show the municipal (ie gemeinden) divisions, labelled as Bezirksamtsgr(enze). Your required time-frame is uncertain, so I am not sure if that is early enough for your need. Translations: Landesgrenze => national borders Kreisgrenze => ...


9

The german Wikipedia has a bit about this. In short: No - it was illegal in WWI. And during the Nazis it was deadly. EDIT: Den Ersten Weltkrieg betrachtete die Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft ebenso wie die SPD als deutschen Verteidigungskrieg und lehnte die Kriegsdienstverweigerung deshalb weiterhin ab. Sie erlitt mit anderen deutschen pazifistischen ...


9

The German Empire in 1871 was nearly 2 1/2 times as large (in area) as Prussia alone had been 11 years earlier: According to Wikipedia the population of Prussia in 1871 was 24.6MM, and that of the entire German Empire was 40.0MM; note of course that the former includes all the territories conquered/coalesced in the preceding decade. The German Empire's ...


9

It is easy for an "armchair general" to criticize an actual general who was fighting a war without a benefit of a 20/20 hindsight. Both sides made numerous mistakes, and the the Entente's victory was not assured until the very end. There are two basic ways to win a war: crush the enemy on the battlefield choke the enemy economically Both sides tried ...


9

The Germans and Austrians did occupy Kiev, and they did so as a result from military action, albeit one with less resistance than otherwise expected on that front. When the Bolshevik delegation tried to stall the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty negotiations the Central Powers resumed offensive aggression in the East against very weak forces. This is known as the ...


9

There seems to be three different claims as to why Ludendorff should be considered noble in the question: Ludendorff being descended from Eric XIV of Sweden. Ludendorff being descended from several nobles listed in the question. Ludendorff belonging to the "Junker" class. The first of these is relatively straightforward. Eric XIV had only two legitimate ...


8

The Reichstag was the Parliament of the German Empire from 1871- 1918. It had less force than government, but still was very powerful. The legislature was bicameral; the two houses were the Reichstag and Bundesrat. After the Parliament of United Kingdom, the Reichstag was one of the most progressive parliaments in Europe. Members of the Reichstag were ...


8

'Naturally' Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey would be interested in anyone joining their cause. This is not about who ended up in 1918 being at war with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottomans. This is about all those considered by one side or the other as potentially siding with "them" from 1914–1918. And this list of attempts is surprisingly ...


7

The main utility of spiked helmets is against cavalry, specifically to deflect sabers being swung from "overhead." Its value basically declined over the course of the 19th century, as the growing ease and efficacy of using rifles made cavalry obsolete (as opposed to mounted infantry). In the early 20th century, it had no utility in the trenches, where ...


7

They didn't trust Italians… German Empire and Austria-Hungary were allies and agreed for mutual support in case of war. That means Germany may rush South to help, or Austria may rush North to do likewise. And by then railways were a must for all armies. Looking at the map for the state-owned railways in 1912 shows — Staatsbahnen und Privatbahnen im ...


6

Terminal train stations were built in continental Europe because many railroads connected only two cities in the early to mid 19th century. There were not many rail lines, and the stations built were terminal stations. As the railroad network increased, the terminal stations could not be converted to passthrough anymore.


6

SHORT ANSWER Brahms most likely based himself in Vienna because of better opportunities there. The political situation in 'Germany' (Hamburg) does not appear to have had any relevance. DETAILS There does not seem to be any evidence that Brahms left Germany (Hamburg, to be specific) due to the political situation. In fact, 1862 was when Bismarck was ...


6

Colony is being used here more in the "biological" sense. Strictly this means a group of individuals of the same species living closely together, but here it's being co-opted to mean a group of individuals of the same nationality living outside their own country but retaining their own culture and society to keep themselves distinct from the native ...


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