77

They did. Depending on the preferred definition of "colonies", Chinese states in fact established innumerable colonies throughout history. Certainly the most common form was overland colonies created in conquered "barbarian" territories. This processes lasts up till today; Beijing's sinicisation and settlement policies in Tibet and Xinjiang are viewed with ...


51

The Chinese situation was fundamentally different from the Western European colonial empires. In fact it's rather more like Russia, who also managed to keep her Eurasian empire, or the United States, who acquire vast territories West of the Mississippi. In the case of China, those lands you refer to are mostly Sinkiang and Tibet. Most notably there is the ...


22

This is, in fact, the big question of history. Subquestion 1 here: Why didn't Native North Americans (let's say the Mound Builders, for the sake of argument) conquer the world? The problem here, by the very logic you go over in your own question, is that the MB's were inhabiting a continent that was relatively biologically deprived. By comparison to ...


21

The essay is indeed originally in Chinese, with the title 滅國新法論, which may aid further searches. It is collected in full in 《飲冰室合集》, as well as the 《梁啟超文集》 in abridged form. The abridged version is available online from ctext.org, starting from paragraph 125. Wikisource likewise contains the same document. This version apparently excludes detailed summaries ...


17

The Cuban intervention in Angola was entirely in keeping with the regime's outlook since the revolution. C. Sobers, in Investigating Cuban Internationalism: the First Angolan Intervention, 1975, observes that The Angolan intervention culminated a decade of interest in African affairs, and was a prime example of Cuban internationalism. Cuban ...


14

Notice how big China is? There's a reason for that; it's only a semantic difference between calling conquered territory a "colony" and simply part of your country. EDIT: Someone pointed out in comments that the term "colonize" means something different from "expanding borders". So I should clarify what I mean: yes the terms are different, but it's just a ...


14

Afro Carribeans: Afro-Caribbeans are Caribbean people who trace their heritage to Sub-Saharan Africa [...] Between the 16th and 19th centuries, European-led triangular trade brought African people to work as slaves in the Caribbean on various plantations. These Afro Carribeans are descendants of slaves. The slaves had no rights and a master of a slave ...


13

Question: does this have any historical precedent or parallel? Has any other country, peacefully and uncoerced, divested itself of so much territory and income? Let's talk about this premise that Britain divested itself of its empire "peacefully and uncoerced" because its begging the question. The final dissolution of much of the non-white British Empire ...


13

It was somewhat more complicated. According to Wikipedia France conquered Madagaskar in 1895 and sent the royal family into exile on Réunion Island and to Algeria. (Wikipedia, "Madagaskar", chapter French Colonization). After this an uprising started against the French rule. So this prince was apparently executed as a rebel. Some more detail and ...


10

The answer is simple. In the parts of Imperial Russia that became the USSR, the Communist Party had managed to achieve sufficient control, and was determined to form a union. The parts that became independent had strong nationalist movements which won their conflicts with the local communist movements. In Austria-Hungary, the nationalist movements won ...


8

Europe was pretty much a poor smelly underdeveloped backwater in global terms for most of history, although the culture and civilization of the middle east and Africa often reached across the Mediterranean and especially into the areas near the middle east. The change from poor backwater to rulers of the world started with the conquering of the Americas, ...


7

China did have colonies. All of the islands in Asia reachable by junk have been colonized by the Chinese at one time or another: Malaysia, the Phillipines, Taiwan, etc. The far ranging colonies of the European powers made in the 1500-1800 period cannot be compared because China did not have types of sea-faring vessels necessary. Another factor is that China ...


7

These are both good answers but I think I can offer some extra points not included in them (after I have +1ed them both)! This is all cloaked in the wool of human history (there is always a counter example somewhere and a lot of this deals only in the general cases): The driver seems to be (as stated previously) the multiple states of almost equal power ...


7

Japanese quasi-colonialism in the 17th century mostly took place in Siam. There, the king had hired Japanese mercenaries to fight his battles, and these mercenaries threatened to take over the country from the early part of the century to 1630, until they were driven out. This was not a move that had the blessing of the Japanese government (from which the ...


7

For Cuba and Soviet Union fighting imperialism was not a goal in itself but a mean to establish Communist regimes in other countries. The declared final goal of communists is the victory of worldwide communist revolution. The disagreements between Soviet Union and Cuba were of purely tactical character (when and where and whom to fight). But the general ...


6

Good question; have little time now for more than a couple of thoughts: In the ancient world almost all states were, so to say, opportunistically expansionist. That is to say, almost no ruler or state ever passed an opportunity to take over the lands of a weak neighbour, either by direct force or by some form of intimidation. In that sense, Rome was not ...


5

Europeans conquered "almost the whole world" (as we know it today), because the technology in use at the time of their ascendency (steamships and artillery), made it physically possible for them to do so. The Mongolians conquered "almost the whole world" as THEY knew it (most of modern Asia), based on the physical limits of their "technology" (mounted ...


5

Although it was (technically) addressed to Americans, Rudyard Kipling published perhaps the best reconciliation of these two impulses with this poem, "Take up the white man's burden". Key lines include the following: "Come now to search your manhood, through all the thankless years. Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom, the judgment of your peers." Put ...


5

It is entirely normal for cities in empires to erect monuments to emperors. The exact practices vary between countries, but there seem to have been at least 425 to Wilhelm I erected between his death in 1888 and 1918. It was unusual in Prussia to build monuments to living royals, even before the creation of the empire, so there were few before his death. A ...


5

There are a number of possibilities here, though none fully meet your criteria. Aside from the Mercator distortion mentioned by SJuan76 in his comment, you may be thinking of the McDonald Gill Highways of Empire map from 1927 which placed the British Isles in the centre of the frame and projected, in red, the overseas empire around them, in somewhat ...


4

In general, it is problematic to call "nationalism" anything before the French Revolution, because before that the idea that the nation was a political subject was just political-fiction. Apart from that, before the second half of the XIX century, to many people it really did not affect much if his country was under the control of a foreign power. Travel ...


3

The British empire was primarily about trade. Imperial expansion was really about securing new markets and and sources of raw materials. Kipling's poem The White Man's Burden (quoted by Tom in his answer above) was an attempt to justify imperialism as a "noble enterprise" which brought civilisation to "the brutish and barbarous parts of the world" In ...


3

In the early 15th century, China had huge junks that dwarfed the ships of their European counterparts. China's Treasure Fleet sailed throughout the eastern Pacific and northern Indian oceans. By the latter part of the 15th century, China had turned inward. Building or working on a junk with more than two masts became a capital crime. Who knows what the ...


3

There may not have been a movement in Britain, but there were certainly individual left-wing anti-colonial intellectuals from the British colonies who wrote works in this vein. C. L. R. James from Trinidad was one, recognized even today for Black Jacobins, a history of the Haitian revolution published in 1938. This event (contemporary to the French ...


3

According to your linked Wikipedia article, that movement essentially started out as a Francophone version of the Harlem Renaissance. One important point here is that the Afro-British would not have nearly as much incentive to start their own movement, as the existing one already used their native language. In fact, a sizable amount of participants in the ...


3

That was true in the "early days" (basically the days of the Roman Republic). At that time, "Rome," (basically central Italy), was beset by Greek outposts (of so-called Magna Graecia) in southern Italy (as far north as modern Naples, at one time), Tarentum, and the Italian "boot." Also Carthaginian outposts in Lilybaem (Sicily), Caralis (Sardinia). And ...


3

The answer has to do with demographics based on agricultural productivity. The sedentary 'Han' Chinese could spread into the lands of their conquerors and out-breed and out-produce them. Thus, though the Mongols and Manchus and so on conquered 'Han' China, increasing proportions of their own homelands came to be ethnically Chinese. In the Manchu case, ...


3

There was an important difference between the two empires. In the case of the Soviet Union, there was one country, Russia, with 50% or more of the people of the whole Union. The next two, Ukraine, and Byelorussia, had about 15%. The remaining 30%-35% were divided among 13 Republics, averaging 2%-3% each. Russia was so much larger (in population) than the ...


3

The following is taken from the book (in Russian) Natalia Mathanova, "Governors-general of Eastern Siberia in mid-19th century", Novosibirsk, 1998. (This is Mathanova's doctoral dissertation.) Muraviev arrived to Irkutsk as a governor-general of the entire Eastern Siberia in 1849. While there is some disagreement regarding his goals (see pp. 117-...


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