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31

Iron is not "mined" in its native form. The ores of iron, such as hematite, are oxides which are plentiful and can even be collected right off the surface of the earth with no mining involved at all. I myself have collected hematite and magnetite from stream beds right near where I live. The difficulty in making iron is that it must be reduced from its ...


25

Garcilaso de la Vega, a Spanish-Peruvian chronicler in the Viceroyalty of Peru(then Spanish-held) recounted several aspects of Incan life and tradition. His most famous works include Historia de la Florida and Comentarios Reales de los Incas the second of which is of presumably more interest to you as it details some of his experiences in Cuzco as a child. ...


21

Cristóbal de Molina, a young Spanish priest, witnesses in 1535 the Inca celebration of the maize harvest: On a platform Indians were throwing meats into a great fire. At another place the Inca ordered llamas to be thrown for the poorer Indians to grab, and this caused great sport. Over 200 hundred girls came out of Cuzco, each with a large new pot ...


10

The reason is the same for which the Bronze Age existed in Europe and elsewhere. People knew how to make copper and bronze but did not know how to make iron. So there is nothing special about Americans in general and Peruvians in particular. They just did not discover the process. But I suppose they knew about meteoric iron.


10

I have not watched the documentary. However, going by Jared Diamond's book of the same name, I would be surprised if it claimed that the Incans capitulated because they believed that the conquistadores were gods. Quoting from the book: These Spanish victories cannot be written off as due merely to the help of Native American allies, to the psychological ...


7

If we look at the rest of the world, it seems city building civilizations require large population growth which is sustainable through farming. Quite simply, if you can't feed a city, the city will fail. Additionally, in colder regions people need to move to warmer regions with more food in the winter, unless they can store food in sufficient quantities to ...


6

You might want to go to the source of this theory as presented in the article Absolute Chronology in the Andean Area American Antiquity, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Jan., 1945), pp. 265-284. This only forms the basis for that theory as it was later developed. A first priming definition of terminology: The following eras of ancient Peru (1800 BC-AD 1534) have been ...


5

It seems highly unlikely. The second part of the Guns, Germs and steel, featuring Efrain Trelles, that you mentioned in the question is currently available to view on YouTube. A transcript is also available online. From the transcript: Efrain Trelles: "Ataxalpa knew that the Spaniards were not gods. The intelligence reports speak of people wearing wool ...


4

The original route was across the isthmus from Nombre de Dios to Panama City. Later, the city of Portobelo, which is near to Nombre de Dios, became the Caribbean hub for the south seas. The road between Portobelo and Panama City was called Camino Real. The South Sea fleet of the Spanish crown operated between Panama City and two ports in Peru: Arica and ...


4

Although opinions differ, the overwhelming academic view as things stand is that construction at Machu Picchu began around 1450. I don't think anyone is completely ruling out an earlier temple being built on the site before that, but the 'evidence' in the video is pretty scanty: it's well-established that precision stone-working had been in place in the ...


4

Take your pick from the following: 16 November 1532: Pizarro captures the Inca Atahulpa at Cajamarca. 26 July 1533: Pizarro executes the Inca Atahualpa at Cajamarca. 15 November 1533: Pizarro seizes the city of Cuzco. July 1537: Manco Inca abandons his rebellion against the Spaniards and retreats to Vilcabamba. September 1572: The Spaniards execute the ...


4

Thor Heyerdahl proved it was possible with the Kon-tiki raft to sail from Polynesia to South America. Later he did a similar experiment to see if Egyptians could have crossed the Atlantic with boats build out of papyrus. More precisely, he didn't really proof it was possible: he proved it was not impossible. That doesn't want say it was likely, and it ...


3

This is unproven. There are several major claims of possible prehistoric contact between Polynesians and the Americas. The Polynesian culture was the more maritime one. It reached as far as Easter Island with certainty, and why would it have not gone farther? The Inca did have seaworthy rafts but only for coasting. If Topa Inca Yupanqui's sea voyage truly ...


3

1572, with the capture and execution of Túpac Amaru, the last Inca monarch. Túpac Amaru's execution effectively completed the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire that had started 40 years earlier with the Battle of Cajamarca (November 16, 1532) and the capture of Atahualpa.


3

Any present-tense questions you have probably should be asked on the linguistic stack. I can tell you that historically the language was not written, and according to Wikipedia most speakers even today don't read and write in that language, due to the paucity of written works. So any written form you come across is probably used almost entirely by ...


3

I would suggest that he was not chosen, not due to his status, but due to the politics favoring Atahualpa. The link you provided on the princess/consort Paccha Duchicela states: Her rights to the throne of Quito was thereby transferred to the royal Inca dynasty By selecting Atahualpa as heir, the Quito territory was added to the empire much like any ...


3

This article on Pre-Columbian Trade by Chester S. Chard would suggest they did. For instance: There is no evidence that Maya traders themselves reached the highlands of Mexico; they traded their goods in the great commercial center of Xicalango, whence others carried them on. It is reported that the merchants of Xicalango furnished Cortez with fairly ...


3

Aztecs did know about Mayas but the Mayan civilization was already dead. But of course, they did traded with its descendants - even prehistoric men traded with their neighbours. And no direct contacts for the contemporary Incas civilization. https://www.quora.com/Did-the-Aztecs-Mayas-and-Incas-know-about-each-other-Did-they-communicate-between-them The ...


2

It appears that the real demise of the Mayan Empire was a number of factors, including drought, warfare, and disease. NASA archaeologist Tom Sever used satellite images combined with archeological findings to piece together the most likely scenario. Using pollen trapped in layers of lake sediment, scientists learned that around 1,200 years ago, just before ...


2

Dry stone constructs required careful work and clever design, but most construction was done in adobe and fieldstone-and-mortar. As to how the Incan architects could build without mortar -- they didn't. The Inca used adobe and fieldstone-and-mortar construction in most of their work -- but their dry stone construction was still spectacular. Machu Pichu, ...


1

The Natives of the Americas advanced their civilizations well enough for the situation they were in. They developed from common stone-age tech level and had agriculture, cities, stone building and pyramid like structures. They developed societies that were comparable to those in remote parts of Europe in the age of the Pyramids, or better, by say 1200 AD. ...


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