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11

This expedition was financed by the Affaitadi family (they were bankers), of which Matteo de Bergamo was a clerk. It is natural that the investors would ask the da Gama brothers to take one of their trusted clerks with them. However, after the expedition that took place in 1503, under the direction of Francisco de Almeida, King Manuel I forbade that Italian ...


6

It looks highly unlikely. All we can say for sure is that there doesn't appear to be any evidence that such a thing ever happened during that era. The vast majority of our exemplars of Indus Valley Script were made on pottery or engraved into stone, particularly stamp seals. Of those, the majority appears to have been on pottery. However, I've also been able ...


5

The 'Yavanas' (Greeks) did have a strong presence in North India over 2000 years ago. They also had trading links with South India. Some mercenaries and artisans appear to have settled there. Greek influence peaked under Demetrius I who reached as far as Magadha (modern Bihar) before being repelled by the King of Kalinga. Demetrius was married to a Mauryan ...


5

The confusion here seems to stem from the use of a combined pre-Harappan/early Harappan terminology. We can see this usage repeated in the Wikipedia article for the Indus valley Civilization, in the table on Chronology. If we look at the meaning and locations of these terms it might be more clear. The pre-Harappan era is the oldest, and seems to mainly occur ...


5

True Aryans Does the idea of white Europeans being the “true Aryans” come from the British India? No. According to some sources the idea originated in Germany for example: https://www.etymonline.com/word/aryan says [...] it was the word early 19c. European philologists (Friedrich Schlegel, 1819, who linked it with German Ehre "honor") applied to ...


4

'Reasons' seem clear, exact mode of death not. Malerao died within a year after his succession, being affected by insanity. — N. N. Nagrale: "Ahilyabai and her Benevolent Administration", Proceedings of the Indian History Congress , 1979, Vol. 40 (1979), pp. 700–706 (jstor) As is repeated here: On 5 April 1767, Male Rao sank into insanity and ...


4

Indian historians It appears to be very much dependant upon who exactly the historians are. Scholars of Hinduism and Indian history would appear to be in favour of a historical Krishna, according to Guy I. Beck in his book "Alternative Krishnas" Alternative Krishnas most scholars of Hinduism and Indian history accept the historicity of Krishna - ...


4

If you believe that all history is about 'class conflict'- i.e. rich vs poor- and that 'Religion is the opium of the masses' (i.e. rich people use Religion to fool the poor) then you will also believe that Hindu and/or Muslim communal consciousness or communalism (are) forms of ideology or discourse connected to class, group, and elite political interests. ...


3

This post is intended primarily as a supplement to 0range's answer; the reader should also be aware that Hinduism might not necessarily have a monolithic view on the matter. The famous law code, Manusmriti provides for punishment to homosexual men and women. Manusmriti says that if a girl has sex with another girl, she is liable for a fine of two hundred ...


3

The Muslim proportion in "undivided India" - today's India, Pakistan and Bangladesh - has risen from 21% in the late 19th century to about 31½% today, but there can be little doubt that the rate of increase was slower in the C19, much of the 20th-century growth being concentrated in the area now forming Pakistan which saw exceptional agricultural ...


3

Disclaimer: I do not claim to have any clue about India. I am answering this question because the question says "what do these lines mean", rather than "are these lines an accurate portrayal of what actually happened?". The lines you are quoting are assuming that Hindus and Muslims are not "natural" enemies. History has examples ...


2

Those flowers likely represent lotus. This is from the Charminar Wikipedia page - the German edition: Simple translation: "[...] These end in Chhatris with bellied domes, which in turn rest in wide-open stone lotus flowers" Now, this refers to the flowers next to the closed ones (in your upper picture) but it can be assumed that the middle ones ...


2

Yes. The evidence that the British relied upon the support of Princes and land-owners is to be found in profusion in the recorded speeches and official communications of every single Governor General or Viceroy every single Secretary of State for India However, there were periods when the policy on the ground was to annex Princedoms without an heir (the ...


2

The terrain. Most of southern India is covered by the Deccan Plateau. According to Wikipedia, "The plateau is located between two mountain ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, each of which rises from its respective nearby coastal plain, and almost converge at the southern tip of India. It is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north ...


1

Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire It does appear to be a notable claim that is taken seriously by certain journalists such as Roger D Long from the Journal of Interdisciplinary History whom writes that the concept of Aryanism did indeed play a central role during British imperial rule and that the discovery of ancient Indian texts written ...


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