38

I'm wondering if Hitler or others conceived of this possibility when they were planning Barbarossa? (Note: much of this is derived from Wikipedia, I don't have the referenced sources.) It seems they conceived the opposite. They were so confident the Soviet army would be unable to function without their supplies from European Russia that they would stand ...


23

What is an "email client" in the first place? The Wikipedia version of History of email indeed glances over the popular aspects. In Bulletin Board System we had email in almost closed circles, sometimes wider networks and gateways into the real internet mail-system. (Example FidoNet). That started at a fairly popular level during the 1980s. On ...


20

Why have rural gas stations vanished? Because business conditions have changed: my grandfather built a small gas station in 1921 at Six Mile and Livernois, near Detroit, on a corner of his father's farm. In those days tires needed to be patched or replaced every thousand miles or so, and there were many other small services that had to be performed on ...


13

Oh yes. I'm old enough to have witnessed everything. First a dial up account with forum software. No internet as yet, you connected to a bulletin board. A bit later a dial up account without graphics (bloody expensive back then) and Internet. Connecting through Trumpet Winsock. Speed was, if I recall, 14.4 k. When I got my Internet account, one of the first ...


11

According to Philip Boobbyer in The Stalin Era, The transportation of industries to the east was a feat which the party’s highly centralised structures were well suited for (Lieberman 1985: 71). It was nevertheless not a smooth operation, and was largely improvised. Sometimes, evacuated goods were simply dumped to permit empty trucks to return to ...


9

The history of e-mail is longer and deeper than you have given it credit for, and the examples you mention are from different eras of its development. Most of the key developments are not in the clients as such, but in the hosting - where is the e-mail stored, and what other services is it bundled with? Alongside that are wider developments in how users ...


9

Here is a link with annual oil production in metric tons (Mt), 1936-1948. The US is by far and away the world's largest oil producer (over 180 million MT in 1940), followed by the Venezuela and the Soviet Union (30 and 27 million MT respectively). The next tier includes Indonesia and Iran (about 8 million MT each), trailed by Mexico and Romania (6 million ...


8

Indeed, the Germans rested their planning on the almost outlandish ideas of ideology, resulting overconfident optimism and not on facts they knew, ought to know or could have known. Concerning industry, capability, manpower and organisation, all estimates were way off the mark. The Germans charged General Thomas with the economic planning of the to be ...


5

I'd say it was a combination of the growing economy and population, increasing urbanization, and the appearance and spread of universities (and other forms of schooling), which meant increased literacy and thus demand for books. There were some technological changes which made books cheaper and easier to produce, such as the shift from parchment to paper1 ...


4

That's a definite no. German intelligence about the Soviet Union was abysmal. Not just bad, but abysmal. They estimated the number of Soviet military units wrong by well over 1000%. Not only that, they assumed less than half of what they assumed could be armed. Nearly all units were armed. The Germans didn't know about the T-34 before they met them in ...


4

Sarah Walker, a black, was the first American woman, black or white, to become a millionaire. Orphaned at age six, Walker later became a laundry worker. In 1905, she created a line of cosmetics for black women. At first, she sold her products door to door. They were so popular that Walker’s business expanded until it became a major company.


3

Thanks to user:pugsville for pointing out the League of Nations reports. I chose one with a 1940 column, even though some spaces were not filled in due to war. But as it turns out, all nations producing more than a million tons of oil have a 1940 number. http://digital.library.northwestern.edu/league/le0280ah.pdf (Mt means millions of metric tons of crude ...


2

Certainly no. They planned to finish the war in 1941, there is a lot of indication of this. One crucial piece of evidence is that they did not equip the troops for winter. Of course it was not possible to move the industry before the end of 1941, and even what the Soviets performed was a great surprise for everybody.


1

Evacuation of Soviet Industry in World War II The following shows that Soviet leadership had been aware of the strategic risk they faced due to the concentration of vital industry in the west of the country for many years and had been investing in the rapid development of the interior and east as a precaution against attack from enemy airpower. The ...


1

Chain stores (franchises or otherwise aligned with chains) do deals with the oil companies and the owner operator is offered worst deals. The chain stores have advantages in gas price (which could be sold at a loss and the other stuff marked up ) which eventually drives the gas only and/or independent owner operated businesses out of businesses.


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