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The Great Game, fought between Britain and Russia from 1830 to 1895, is a very close analogue. Like the US-Soviet Cold War, the two powers competed for dominance in Central Asia through a full spectrum of avenues including diplomacy, commerce, and proxies. The Anglo-Russian rivalry led to several conflicts in the Central Asian region such as the Siege of ...


37

I consider the conflict between Sunni and Shiite Islam as a current "Cold War". Saudi Arabia considers themselves the leaders of Sunni Islam, while Iran considers themselves the people who speak for Shia. The current conflict among Muslim powers is substantially similar to the cause of the Thirty Years War. Consequently, when any conflict between Sunni and ...


20

(Nazi) Germany - Soviet Union It would be hard to pinpoint the beginning of the "cold war" since the Soviet Union was actively supporting left-wing fractions during the Weimar Republic, but of course, those countries became even more hostile after Hitler became the chancellor. After all, one of the points of the Nazi party manifesto was "fighting communist ...


14

(Presumably the question rules out the many co-belligerents of the Central Powers, for which Wikipedia has a detailed article.) The Kingdom of Romania is possibly the best example. In fact, the Romanians technically were allied to the Central Powers - they were a secret party to the Triple Alliance. At the start of the Great War, King Carol I wanted to ...


11

The SMS Geier was interned in November 1914 under Article 24 of the Convention Concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War, which formed part of the Hague Convention of 1907. The crew were detained under the terms of the same Article, and for the duration of hostilities. When the United States entered the war on 6 April 1917, the crew ...


10

Russia vs Ottoman Empire Throughout the period of the Russo-Turkish wars the times of "peace" would be better characterized as "cold war". The period involved intense rivalry and border skirmishes and the sponsoring of raids on the other's territory by the local cossacks. This culminated in Russian support of secession movements and rebellions in the ...


9

In the years before the Kennedy administration, visiting African dignitaries, mostly from Liberia and Ethiopia, could hope for (but not expect) the red carpet to be rolled out / meet a senior government official up to and including the president. However, when travelling around / visiting places, most could expect to be exposed to segregation and other ...


9

At least one Black head of state was received on an official visit prior to the Civil Rights era. This was Liberian President Edwin Barclay who followed FDR's 1942 visit to Liberia by making an official visit to Washington, DC in 1943. Per Wikipedia, he had a mixed ethnic background, and "was the first black man to be officially introduced from the rostrum ...


8

The short answer is yes, the British monarch was technically the Head of State for South West Africa (formerly Deutsch-Südwestafrika) from the grant of the Mandate by the League of Nations until South Africa became a republic on 31 May 1961. It's worth noting that South West Africa didn't become known as Namibia until the UN General Assembly changed the ...


8

Although I am late to the party since there is no accepted answer I will try to give mine. There are two cases I can think that might answer the question. In ancient Greek city-states there were proxenoi. They were citizens of their respective city, but had friendly relations with another city-state and fulfilled some of the functions that are today in an ...


8

The origins of the 99-year lease are unknown, but have been a matter of speculation for centuries. However, that figure had become commonplace in many countries by the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It is thus unsurprising that negotiated territorial contracts included "99-years" as a 'default period' in many cases. The English jurist and politician, ...


8

'Naturally' Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey would be interested in anyone joining their cause. This is not about who ended up in 1918 being at war with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottomans. This is about all those considered by one side or the other as potentially siding with "them" from 1914–1918. And this list of attempts is surprisingly ...


6

That's mostly owing to the fact that, while most defensive alliances are signed in peacetime, in this case all the parties involved were already at war. Usually defensive alliances are made to deter declarations of war. The weird situation here was that all the involved parties were already at war, and weren't looking to immediately link up their ongoing ...


5

This article on Precolonial trade in Africa by the Oxford Research Encyclopedia should give you a number of good starting points. It goes through just about everywhere one might expect trade to occur, complete with references to primary sources, including but not limited to: Coastal trade on the East and West coasts. River trade along the Nile, the Zambezi, ...


4

The value "12" as month is a misprint, shared between all of Australia (COW 900), New Zealand (COW 920), Canada (COW 20) and South Africa(COW 560). (205 is Ireland, for which the correct year and month are listed.) This is apparent from the accompanying States2016.CSV file, as shown here filtered for the date Jan. 10, 1920 (and which contains a more ...


3

Yes - because a declaration of war is an act of parliament. As noted in the Statute of Westminster (1931): ... And whereas it is in accord with the established constitutional position that no law hereafter made by the Parliament of the United Kingdom shall extend to any of the said Dominions as part of the law of that Dominion otherwise than at the ...


3

Given all the answers above we certainly can find more cases, but I'll give a current emerging example: The China - U.S. cold war (for Africa) At the 12th US-Africa Business Summit held in Maputo, Mozambique there were 11 African heads of state and government and around 1,000 business leaders. During the event, US officials unveiled that a $60 billion ...


3

War between Chile and the coalition of Peru and Bolivia During this war, Chile payed with territory (Patagonia territories) to Argentina in order to prevent Argentinian intervention in the war against Chile. Thanks to this deal, Chile won the war and several territories from Peru and Bolivia. But Chile lost any demand over territories on the Patagonia east ...


2

There is the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 between England and Portugal, which is the oldest and longest standing treaty. This alliance was made to ensure perpetual friendships, unions [and] alliances between the two countries. The friendship started in 1147 when England came to the aid of the Portuguese king after the Moors laid siege to Lisbon and freed ...


2

It is possible that there was was something like a cold war in the Middle East between the Roman empire and the Parthian empire of the Arsacid dynasty succeeded by the Persian empire of the Sassanid dynasty for about 700 years. There were many wars and many periods of peace in those 700 or so years but it is possible that there were periods of cold war and ...


1

At any time, between most countries according to your definition. At any given point in time Country A is in state of conflict with other nations. Country A is currently engaging in economic and political actions, propaganda, acts of espionage or proxy wars waged by surrogates with Country B. Country B is aware of that, and does the same with Country ...


1

See the interesting diary published as 'Travels in the Interior of Africa' by late Eighteenth Century British explorer Mungo Park. He travelled through inland Sub-Saharan West Africa, learned local languages and traced much of the course of the River Niger. The rest of this answer is based on that. Park records that trade among the Africans of that region ...


1

It was "diplomatese." The gist of the pact was that the three parties did not have to help each other against their existing enemies or Soviet Russia, but only against the one, great and foreseeable potential common enemy--the United States. It was not a "typical" pact, because the circumstances were unusual; there was basically only one country that fit ...


1

Question 1 My question is why did we put up with Germany's actions but not Japan's? I know that we aided England with Lend Lease and such, but we maintained diplomatic relations with Germany and did not protest their actions the way we did with Japan. America didn't think Japan was much of a threat. Some of this was conceit some of it was ignorance as ...


1

The US had no formal embargo against Germany, but instituted the Cash and Carry modification to the Neutrality Acts on September 21, 1939. The new rule that was a belligerent could buy anything from the US, as long as they paid cash or the equivalent and carried away on their own ships. Britain had lots of available money at the time (the institution of ...


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