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Paul von Hindenburg called Hitler a "böhmischer Gefreiter". He (and others) wrongly assumed that Hitler was born in Broumov (called Braunau in German) that is indeed in Bohemia (today Czech Republic). However, that was a mistake, as Hitler was born in the actual town of Braunau in Austria. At the time of Hitler's birth, both towns belonged to the Austro-...


14

All legal privileges of the aristocracy were abolished when the Weimar Republic was founded. The current Federal Republic of Germany does not recognize any nobility but allows the use of hereditary titles as part of a name, unlike Austria where even that is banned. As for individual Kingdoms and other entities, their fates are as follows: Kingdoms were ...


12

SHORT ANSWER The earliest TV program broadcast which can be proven as not being experimental is Charles Francis Jenkins' revolving windmill segment broadcast on the 2nd of July, 1928, but there may have been others before this. While The Queen's Messenger, broadcast in the US on the 11th of September 1928, can probably claim to be the first TV drama, it ...


10

There are many examples of antisemitic caricatures in the far-right French press between the two world wars, especially in the thirties. It is not so easy to find them on the net (I don't know where to look), but a good library with a collection of the journal "Je suis partout", one of the most famous of those journals, should give you plenty of examples.


9

No, absolutely not. In the 30's chewing gum in Europe wasn't a common sweet. Chewing gum in public was considered highly impolite, to say the least. People saw it as eating in public, something you normally don't do either. Only chewing gum was far more rude. It was sold in Europe, marketed mainly towards children, but as far as I know not in great ...


8

In that situation and given the presumed social status of your protagonists: impossible! Well, almost impossible and highly frowned upon, socially, but it gets even worse, for all involved. While extramarital sex was never fully controlled by the authorities, not at anytime and not in Vienna, Austria had quite a few laws, similar to German laws that ...


8

In any case there will have been "attempts" to flee. The most intriguing follow up question is then to ask whether any of these attempts would have been successful, or whether all attempts were in vain. For the camps in question, there were attempts, and some of them were successful. The camp Wöllersleben has some incidents recorded: Translation: ...


8

No, they did not. Imperial Japan never subscribed to the racial ideology of the Nazis. Instead, like many in East Asia at the time, they adopted a somewhat self-deprecating racial attitude; as they enthusiastically adopted modern Western practices during the Meiji Restoration, there appeared a strain of thought that the Western races were superior to the ...


7

The general verdict expressed in @Jos' answer is absolutely correct. It was not customary for young upper-middle class women to chew gum in public in German-speaking Europe. However, in the given or intended context there might be some additional aspects to consider. Chewing in public was seen as "eating" and that was very highly frowned upon until the ...


7

tldr; Both were fascist parties fighting for power. Austrofascism was oriented on the Italian fascists, whereas the Nazis were strongly influenced by Hitler's German Nazis. Austrofascism was derived from the conservative parties Christlichsoziale Partei and Landbund. Both more or less favoured Austrian independence from Germany, although the Landbund ...


6

You might want to read Christopher Andrew's authorised history of the British Security Service, MI5: The Defence of the Realm. The book describes details of some of the activities of Bolshevik agents in the UK in the years following the First World War. I don't know of a similar history for the French Deuxième Bureau, but I suspect they faced similar issues....


5

Communism represented an existential threat to western capitalistic, democratic societies; Fascism, which started out as a "one country" thing, did not. If Italy, for instance, became fascist, that didn't mean that other countries would. As late as 1939, people like Neville Chamberlain thought that capitalist democracies could co-exist with the Nazis. (...


5

Imagine an unmarried couple in their mid-twenties, both educated (teachers). They live in Vienna of the early 1930es (before the Anschluss). That's kind of very hard to imagine, as this was completely contrary to what society found acceptable at the time. You're looking at the past with the mindset of today. That won't work, and it's a very common made ...


4

A few hundred or a few thousand rifles and handguns are nothing compared to the small arms issued to men by the thousands and millions during World War I and World War II. Most of the WWII weapons were not yet manufactured in 1934 but there were millions of WWI era and older weapons around in 1934. If, for example, there were 10,000,000 each of rifles and ...


4

An alternate answer: If you were a government minister, which would you rather support? Fascism which promises a more powerful, more effective government, or; Communism which promises an end to all government?


4

After a bit of research I found that the answers to your question in the original scope could fill a library. And apparently do: or at least a whole museum. Namely the School Museum in Dresden Based on your comment, I'll limit the scope to the education system in Saxony during the Weimar Republic. I found just the resource for that: Die sächsische ...


3

Before and during the war Germany was officially what was known as the "German Confederation", a republic of many different independent states. The loss of the war completely destroyed the confederation. What happened is that the army stopped fighting the Allies and attacked and invaded all the different principalities of Germany, which were all mutinying, ...


3

Since there is no reason for AntiSemitism in France to have died out because of the treaty of Versailles only to spring right back at the outbreak of WWII, the reasonable conclusion is that there were AntiSemitic cartoons as usual during the period, to reflect the known levels of AntiSemitism in France at the time. Not to single out France, as there was an ...


3

During the German War in 1866 Paul von Hindenburg served as a 19-year old officier in the Prussian Army. During that war against the Austrian Empire he came across a Bohemian village also named "Braunau". Thats why he mistook Bohemia as Hitler´s birthplace.


3

Central and Eastern Europe was in turmoil in the 1920s. World War I ended with a defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary and the breakup of Austria-Hungary. The central powers had been effective in the East, forcing Russia to sign the treaty of Brest-Litovsk. With the German defeat in the West it was forced to reverse the treaty, Poland was recreated and ...


3

One aspect from the question that needs emphasis is the answer to Could a homeschooled girl from the upper-middle class become an elementary school teacher, if she wanted to be independent? The homeschooled part is the crux. This requires a definite "No way" answer. First of all because there was no homeschooling allowed in the Weimar constitution (Art ...


3

Was there any similar attitude or activity against Slavs in Imperial Japan? I doubt that Japan ever found enough Slavic people to make something like the Holocaust possible, but were there other forms of persecution? Unlike Germany, Japan occupied part of Russia in the interwar period (see this and this). How were the Russians living here treated? Were ...


1

There were two reasons that the Japanese did not persecute Slavs. 1) Unlike Germany, the Japanese (islands) did not have any common borders with Slavic peoples, nor did they have to worry about Slavic migration. Yes, there was some friction with "Russians," in Manchuria and Siberia, but this might be viewed as "colonial," issues, something like French-...


1

From your question, are you doing research for a historical novel? If it is just about explaining the background of a character, consider having the young lady do a stint doing social/missionary support jobs for one of the two big churches, somewhere among the German minorities in the east or with the Diakonie. Not all those jobs were lifetime career ...


1

The rules changed during the period you mention, and they varied from state to state and also according to the type of school. Here are three bullet points which all miss your precise question closely. During the Weimar years there was generally a Schulpflicht, going to a public (or equivalent) school was mandatory with few exceptions. Homeschooling is ...


1

You've revised the question in comments; you're not asking why people opposed Communism, you're asking why they opposed it more than Fascism (dictators) The difference is twofold - first in the claims they made and second in the cultures where they took root. What claims did Communism make? Communism advocated worldwide revolution, the abolition of ...


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