63

Turkey celebrates "Conquest Day" on May 29th to commemorate the Fall of Constantinople. On this occasion in 1453 the Ottomans took the Byzantine capital, and then made it their own capital. American Historical Review editor Robert A. Schneider summarized Gavin D. Brockett's paper "When Ottomans Become Turks: Commemorating the Conquest of Constantinople and ...


46

The LCVP or Higgins boat was designed with one primary goal: to land a large number of troops quickly. Therefore it was important that: Troops can disembark as quickly as possible LCVPs can land right next to each other, maximising the total amount of troops disembarking After disembarkation, the craft can then reverse and return for more troops, evacuating ...


43

They still do it that way: LCU Replacement in Preliminary Design, Anticipating 2022 Fleet Debut If the beaches are heavily defended, the Navy is supposed to bombard them prior to the landing. Occasionally the military and naval planners have been known to make deadly mistakes. As pointed out in the comments, the debouching troops and equipment hit the ...


43

Yes, there are at least two such cases. Guanacaste Day is celebrated in Costa Rica to commemorate the annexation Guanacaste province from Nicaragua in 1824. However, my very brief research indicates it was a peaceful annexation, not the result of war. More recently, the Russian parliament voted to create a holiday commemorating the annexation of Crimea in ...


40

Three factors. 1) The death of Ögedei Khan forced the hordes rampaging through Europe under Subutai to break off and return for the Kuraltai to choose a successor. Interrupting their hard-earned momentum, and giving the Europeans time to regroup, recover, reflect and prepare, was the deciding factor - also, Talabuga was not the general Subutai was. 2) ...


37

The other two answers speak in terms of Tibet's legal status; and these answers, while correct, don't properly explain why Tibet is important to China. This answer relates entirely to geography. The motives: Short Answer: 1. Tibet has control of most the water in China; the Huang He and the Chang Jiang originate there. If you exercise control these two ...


32

Yes. Romania celebrates on December 1 (Great Union Day) the annexation of Transylvania from Austria-Hungary.


25

A few points help in answering your question: The History has a Selection Bias The first issue is: Is your question accurate? Keep in mind that we inherited most of our history from the European perspective. There were plenty of cases where Europeans went out and conquered other groups, and the Europeans were just as warlike. The difference is that it ...


22

On 6 November every year, Morocco celebrates the Green March, which led to the claimed annexation of Western Sahara (which had been held by the Spanish until that time) by Morocco.


20

The region to east of Bengal is Myanmar. In between them, the Himalayan foothills taper off rather abruptly into the Bay of Bengal. They still form quite a formidable obstacle. Southeast Asia itself is an isolated place with rugged terrain. I'm not an expert, but it looks like pre-modern civilizations there were located along waterways, and depended heavily ...


17

In the current form of the question, I'd suggest Germany, Italy. Caveats apply. Germany One question in the comments below the original question that arose displays nicely how flawed the concept asked about really is as it depends very much on opinions. Does the Day of German Unity, observed annually on October 3, count? Of course that would count. ...


15

tl;dr Why invade? Because government, in order to be legitimate (I'm using the term "legitimate" in the same sense as Fukyama - that the citizens perceive the government's actions as appropriate and that the citizens support and endorse the government. The term is different from "strength", but that is a different question), must exercise ...


15

Not a complete country, but a faction within the country. William III invaded Britain, with popular support from the majority-Protestant population. Northern Irish Protestants still celebrate the Battle of the Boyne, where William crushed James II/VII's army and ended any real opposition to his invasion. Of course, this is an artifact of the fractured ...


14

Here is an outline of a few sentences distilled from many long paragraphs at my previously mentioned website. The apparent military superiority of the horse-mounted nomads of central Eurasia during ancient and medieval times was due to: The Scythian, Sarmatian, Alan, Hun, Avar, Magyar, Mongol, et al armies had a tremendous advantage in both strategic and ...


12

The short version is that to the minds of a lot of Chinese, that was historically Chinese territory. They were just reclaiming what was theirs. A lot of modern Chinese territorial claims go back to the Manchurian "Qing" dynasty, which ran China from 1644 to 1912. At its greatest extent, the Qing ruled a very expansive territory that included Manchuria, ...


12

A lot of polities or part of them have been founded as result of the conquest of their territory. Therefore, commemorating the conquest mixes with commemorating the founding of the polity. Istanbul Conquest Day, mentioned in another answer, is a great example - it does not commemorate the founding of the state, but the completion of the conquest of its ...


10

A very important reason was the death of Genghis Khan, the "maximum leader" in 1227. This caused his Empire to be divided into four "Khanates" (see bottom of link), Russia (yellow), the Middle East (purple), Central Asia (red), and China-Mongolia (green) in the map above. None of these entities had the power of the whole. More to the point, most empires ...


10

You might also ask why these people from the steppes also created so much havoc in CHINA. Because they are really two sides of the same coin. In "economic" terms, there are two reasons: 1) "comparative advantage" and 2) "incentives." To use a model derived from Civilization II (I like to play the Russians and the Mongols on the "real world" map), there are ...


9

Note that the first such peoples from the Eurasian Steppes were the Germans (Goths in particular), so it wasn't the people themselves so much as something about the environment. The period in which this was occurring, roughly 400AD to 1350 (or Andrianople to the popularization of Gunpowder), is what historian Charles Oman referred to as The Age of Cavalry. ...


8

It's mainly because of terrain. Between Bengal and Burma there are Himalayan foothills. Hundred of Kilometer long dense forest and high hills made it virtually impossible to mobilize troops in large group, especially in ancient and medieval time. British Raj is able to conqueror Burma because British Empire is a Maritime Empire, unlike the other Empire in ...


8

Spain's National Day is celebrated on October 12th, the day Columbus (re)discovered the American continent in 1492. Given that every discovered territory was subsequently claimed by the Spanish Crown and promptly conquered/annexed, thus marking the birth of the Spanish Empire, this holiday can be seen as a celebration of the annexation of the American ...


7

An invasion by US armed forces would have worked, but would also have been deeply illegal, since it would have been a war of aggression. It would also likely have precipitated a war with the Soviet Union, and Cuba wasn't worth that risk. The plan seems to have started as one for a counter-revolution within Cuba with outside support, and been expanded into ...


7

Yes. Under the Yuan Empire, Hainan Island was administered as part of the Huguang Province. The Mongolians took the island when they conquered the Song Dynasty. Partial Chinese rule stretches back to the Han Dynasty, though native revolts forced the imperial administration off the island. More permanent control was established during the Southern and ...


7

The first paper basically says that genetically, some remains dated around 2500BCE from an Indus Valley Civilization individual show no central Asian (presumably Indo-European) component. The second says that Modern South Asians do have that genetic component. Both are entirely consistent with a historical picture where Indo-European speakers from central ...


6

For Mongols specifically, it was in part their unparallelled-till-20th-century tactical flexibility. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_military_tactics_and_organization


5

I have an example of three generations of a European family invading the Middle East. Fredrick I Barbarossa, Emperor of the Romans, lead a large army in the Third Crusade but drowned when crossing a river in what is now Turkey. His son Henry VI, Emperor of the Romans, sent a force of crusaders to the Middle East. Henry VI's son, Emperor of the Romans ...


5

If we're allowed to expand the definition of the "Middle East" (and possibly also "invasion") a little, Russian Tsar Nicholas I died on March 2, 1855 in the middle of the Crimean War, and his son Alexander II inherited the whole bloody farce, including a back-and-forth sideshow in the Caucasus, across the border between Georgia and Turkey. After several ...


5

Based in historical facts, we might say that Romania was not neutral by then. Russia occupied Bessarabia and Bukovina from Romania early in the war. Hence, Romania neutrality was already violated. It was after those events that Romania entered in alliance with Germany.


5

Italy also has a (not too much celebrated, not a bank holiday) official celebration for its unification, after Piedmont had "liberated" most of the peninsula. But a man's unification/liberation is another man's conquest/annexation, depending on how words and sides turn.


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