96

The Roman writer on agriculture Columella, who died around AD 70, gives a detailed description of the manufacture of hay (Latin: faenum) in his de re rustica 2.18, which reads as follows in the Loeb translation: "It is best, moreover, that hay be cut before it begins to wither, as a greater quantity of it is harvested and it affords a more agreeable ...


94

They were called paper darts in the 19th century, as evidenced in this article, which contains many detailed references going back as far as 1864, and many illustrations In fact, it appears that they continued to be called "paper darts" until the mid-20th century, when the terminology switched largely because airplanes had come to more closely ...


78

Short Answer (Paper) Dart and (Paper) Arrow These terms were used from at least the 1860s. However, not all of these designs were what we would today recognize and call 'paper planes'. Some clearly looked like the darts thrown at dart boards. Details There are 19th century references (with images resembling paper planes) to 'paper dart' and 'arrow' (UK &...


48

This is a quite convoluted story. But in short: the common story is a bit too short for correctness. The Versailles Treaty was quite bad on many accounts, but it was not really responsible alone for what happened to aspirin. The classical account is this: In 1915, Aspirin manufactured in tablet form became available without a prescription. As soon as the ...


23

I think Freeman Dyson may have a point, but his facts seem to lack foundation. One only needs hay for horses that lack sufficient winter pasture for forage. Cattle were domesticated by 6,000 BC, and horses by 4,000 BC. Horses are able to forage during winter by using their hoofs to paw through ice and snow, and to break ice to get water. Unless the weather ...


14

Judging by History of Silage by Wilkinson et al (2003), the premise behind the question is somewhat inaccurate. Silage making is probably more than 3000 yr old. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks stored grain and whole forage crops in silos. Reviews of the history of silage refer to the mural in the Naples Museum, which shows whole-crop cereals being ...


12

It is possible, although there is no direct evidence to confirm it. We have no surviving documents that state explicitly that Archimedes studied in Alexandria. We know that Conon of Samos and Eratosthenes of Cyrene were contemporaries in Alexandria. On a couple of occasions, Archimedes referred to Conon of Samos as his friend. In addition, two of his works (...


10

Be it known that I, WILLIAM STEBBINS BARNARD, of Canton, county of Fulton and State of Illinois, have invented a Book-Support, of which the following is a specification [of] this invention [that] relates to a support or holder for books, engravings, photographs, cards, and other things, which it is desired to stand on edge, and retain upright on flat ...


10

There are two contemporary accounts of those festivities - "Langham letter" and "The Princely Pleasures at the Courte at Kenelwoorth". These have a certain discrepancy in how they describe this particular episode, but none of them mentions the dolphin being underwater, or it being an automaton. Here's how the author of "Princely Pleasures" describes the ...


8

Metallurgy in North America above the Rio Grande rarely advanced beyond the cold working of native copper, an item which was common enough to be an exported from the upper peninsula of Michigan, even during the pre-Columbian era. In THE PRIMITIVE COPPER INDUSTRY OF AMERICA, by George Brinton Phillips (1925), an analysis of Michigan native copper is ...


7

The question of who invented the aeroplane is a contentious one. The first manned flight occurred at some point before 1849 in an aeroplane designed and built by Sir George Cayley. The plane was based on principles from his landmark three-part treatise "On Aerial Navigation" (1809–1810), which was published in Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy, ...


6

It appears that Peruvians did this (although the word "tomahawk" is probably misapplied if used on South American weaponry). The Met has multiple copper axe-heads from that area, at least one of which may date to as early as the 3rd Century BC. There seems to be a common theme with these Peruvian axe heads to have a functional blade, but a decorated back end....


6

It's sci-fi. The electronics technology required to miniaturise a radio control system (for a model that size) simply didn't exist. If you look at the size of the "control" unit the men are using, you get some idea of the scale of radio equipment of the time. The first practical radio controls for model aircraft would only appear once transistor ...


6

I believe the correct answer is Alfred Nobel, as you already surmised. .... Finally, [Nobel] tried diatomaceous earth, ..., that he brought from the Elbe River near his factory in Hamburg, which successfully stabilized the nitroglycerin into a portable explosive. Nobel obtained patents for his inventions in England on 7 May 1867 The additional pictorial ...


6

In areas without rivers or lakes, people collected rainwater and dug wells.


6

T.E.D.'s answer is the definitive one here, but the other thing to remember is scalability: it might take a while to set the type for a printed page, but every copy after that first one takes a fraction as long to print because the type has already been set. Copying a page by hand takes just as long the 1,000th time as it did the first, and that's not even ...


5

There were quite a few much heavier constructions that have in fact been build and moved by manpower. Helepolis was probably the biggest one, estimated 160 tons, and it was build and moved and used as intended in the siege of Rhodes. If the speed is not an issue one can move very heavy things with pure manpower. Archimedes famously used pulleys to move a ...


4

What are these 'possible inventions' [of slaves, freedman ]? I am tempted to reply almost all of them? There are countless inventions, only the smallest part of all those inventions is really attributable to any name in particular. Even if there are names attached to an invention or innovation, that sometimes gives us not much information on the status of ...


4

In regard to the controversy between Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell, there are lots of claims but almost no actual evidence to support the idea that Bell stole the design for the telephone from Elisha Gray. It is worth reading the Wikipedia article on the controversy. The weight of the evidence - in particular the evidence that Bell had been using ...


3

After an extensive edit, this is probably a long comment rather than answer. Bell's design was developed independently from Gray's, and probably from Meucci's. This article of The Guardian uses the verb "steal", but quoting @sempaiscuba, TG is no stranger to controversy. Many "respectable" articles claim that he conducted experiments in the same laboratory ...


2

Wikipedia attributes the first automobile to Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, invented in 1769: It apparently didn't have much passing power, as the top speed was specified at a blazing fast 4.8 miles per hour and it didn't achieve that in practice. Edit: After a bit of searching, I found a reference to a specific date that the testing started, which is given as ...


2

Although the first patent for an electric iron was awarded in 1882, their heating element remained very fragile, in need of regular replacement, until Thomas E. Morford thought of (and won a patent for) encasing the heating element in enamel in 1893. According to Concise History of Electric Irons in the United States power utilities didn't begin supplying ...


2

The assertion by Elwood that James Watt developed bearings based on dreams is almost certainly apocryphal. Otherwise, I would expect it to appear in at least one biography of James Watt, but I'm not finding it. I searched in the following, and none of them even hint at anything about work on bearings or lead shot, nor of dreams influencing his work in any ...


2

According to The Art of Native American Basketry: A Living Legacy by Frank Porter, Native American basketry began between 7000 BC and 5000 BC: The beginning of this craft occurred between the years 5000 and 7000 B.C. That seed and nut gatherers of the Great Basin started basketry is evidenced at Hogup Cave, Utah, where 160 fragments of baskets were found, ...


2

Yes, of course, American Indians used metal or copper axes, usually the celt type in the Archaic and Woodland eras. The copper celt was a woodworking tool used as an axe, but most tools, especially axes, were also used as weapons. There were also full grooved axes and even the 3/4 grooved axes - used as axes (cutting down trees, splitting into timber and ...


2

Karl Oskar Leon of Gottenborg, Sweden, (apparently owning a US company) filed for a US patent titled Torpedo and other Submarine Apparatus 11 February 1908: The main object of the invention is to provide a torpedo adapted to automatically steer, without any control, toward the object to be destroyed, and to change its course according to the movement of the ...


2

"Paper darts" were the best way to have fun in the 1860s. As early as 1864, kids were flying "paper darts" that looked like what we call "paper airplanes" today.They were called paper darts because they looked and acted like "darts" to a degree of thinking.


1

TL,DR: Maybe proper ensilaging is only feasible with some degree of mechanisation Ensilaging crops (whole crop silage is actually pretty common as fodder) or grass is somewhat involved: You need to chop the plant matter down to a few cm, spread in layers < 30 cm and the press is to avoid air pockets. Air pockets mean mold. During the actual ensilaging (...


1

There is compelling circumstantial evidence that Archimedes studied in Alexandria as a young man, but I believe he was back in Syracuse in 265. He would have then been about 22. At that time, Hieron 11 became king of Syracuse and would have commissioned the famous golden crown and asked Archimedes to verify its gold content. In 240, Eratosthenes calculated ...


1

I too believe Dyson has a point. The use of dried forage grasses may have been known prior to the middle ages, but the practice probably expanded significantly and with greater sophistication during the increasing agricultural settlement of northern Europe. Having a source of fodder for cattle also would have given north Europeans greater resilience in the ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible