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33

The ongoing arms race in armored warfare between defensive measures and offensive weapons generally means that a given tank is able to resist the weapons of the previous generation and, in turn, be able to defeat the armor of the previous generation. In the 1991 Gulf War, while the coalition forces had the Abrams and Challenger MBTs (which were best-of-...


23

According to AAR reports, the losses the Coalition took in this battle were almost all friendly fire incidents. Same AARs indicate that Coalition forces had decisive advantage in: Effective range - on average American tanks could destroy Iraqi T-72 at twice the distance of the Russian-built tanks (~2km), while virtually none of the hits scored on Americans ...


18

Iraqi Body Count maintains an online database of incidents with analysis as to the cause of the deaths reported. The link provided allows you to select the various actors who have been determined by their analysis to be responsible for the deaths. Selecting just those deaths directly determined to be due to the actions of the US-led coalition, the total ...


15

The causus belli of the First Gulf War was the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. President George (HW) Bush managed to get a series of UN declarations calling for the Iraqi troops to leave, and authorizing succesively more drastic actions to achieve this, culminating in 678, which authorized "all nessecary means". This provided a certian amount of international ...


12

The short answer to your question is that the ancient Seleucia and the Medieval Seleucia are in fact two different cities. The original Seleucia was built in 305 BC as the first capital of the Seleucid empire, as you found in your sources. This city was built on the western bank of the Tigris and was ultimately abandoned in 165 AD, when it was destroyed by ...


11

Although it isn't a complete answer to your question, you can gain some insight into the lopsidedness of this and other similar confrontations by reading this analysis: http://www.meforum.org/441/why-arabs-lose-wars The gist of the article is that there is a rather large disconnect in Arabic armies' culture. Officers and enlisted men are seen in a ...


10

The attack of Wahhabi Muslims on Karbala did happen in history, during the long quest of Wahhabi rise to power in creation of Saudi Arabia. It's just a few years before Wahhabis claimed the city of Mecca and Medina (1803). It was sacked because its role as one of the major center of Shi'i learning; the religious shrines and pilgrimage caravans were destroyed....


7

One thing that should be clarified is that it is a fact that Saddam Hussein's Iraq had WMD's at one point. We know this, because he used them on his own Kurdish population in 1988. At issue in 2003 was if he still had them, or if he'd dismantled them all, and his production program, as he'd agreed to do at the end of the first Gulf War. Now, it would ...


7

Take a look at what happened after Saddam was disposed and you get the answer. Or take a look at what happened after the fall of Kadhafi. Those dictators, although certainly not good people, but stabilized their regions. From a political point of view this is what is important. In the case of Iraq it was especially important for the US as a stable Iraq was ...


6

It's hard to say what specific event Chomsky was meaning since he didn't provide a specific reference, but he may have been referencing what's explained in this NYT article from 1992: How did the Iraqis learn to use such specialized equipment? In large part from the United States Government. In August 1989, the Pentagon and the Department of Energy ...


6

Found information in this JSOR article*: Georges Clemenceau ceeded Mosul during a Sunday conversation at the French Embassy in London on December 1st 1918. Possibly for one or more of these three reasons: Removal of a source of friction with their British ally, as France's primary goals at the time were Eurocentric. To forestall a complete revision of the ...


4

The U.S. and Iran were originally allies when the shah they supported was in power. the Iran hostage crisis and subsequent revolution changed this by removing the shah from power and installing the Ayatollah as the new leader of Iran who was fiercely anti American. Iraq was supported by the Soviets, however the Iran-Iraq War was taking place during the ...


4

As you say, it sounds very unlikely. Mahmud had previously proclaimed independence in May 1919 after earlier accepting a British protectorate. He was captured by the British and exiled a month later. He was recalled in September 1922 to help stabilize unrest in the area, and proclaimed independence in November with himself as King. In December, the British ...


4

It has been divided between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Saudi Arabia and Iraq had in fact reached an agreement on partitioning the Saudi-Iraqi Neutral Zone in 1981. This was ratified as a general border treaty in 1983. This created the de factor border depicted in the above map, as dashed lines. Notice it cuts through the Neutral Zone at the centre. Tentative ...


3

It doesn't seem so. The Final Report to Congress on the conduct of the [1991] Persian Gulf War states that: In Iraq, the civil telecommunications system was designed to serve the regime - it was an integral part of military communications. For example, approximately 60 percent of military landline communications passed through the civil telephone system. ...


3

AFAIK no country supplied troops in anything approaching an official capacity. Of course that doesn't mean they weren't there, but if they were there it would not be something the countries in question would want to be known so it's highly unlikely you're going to find official sources to corroborate any claims. More likely is that some international ...


2

According to wiki, your hunch is essentially correct - the original influence is Seleucid indeed. But if I undertstand correctly, the actual buildings are in the Parthian style. Hatra was probably built in the 3rd or 2nd century BC by the Seleucid Empire. After its capture by the Parthian Empire, it flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD as a ...


2

I don't know about the Iraqi Mukhabarat, but the Egyptian one certainly was reorganized in the early 1950s with the help of former Nazi advisers. Notorious war criminals such as Otto Skorzeny and Alois Brunner were prominent in this effort. Others whose participation is not conclusively proven were Leopold Gleim and Oskar Dirlewanger. Rather perversely, ...


2

The 2011 US Congressional Research Service paper Iraq’s Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief covers the topic in detail. It summarizes it: Following the ouster of the Saddam Hussein regime in spring 2003, Iraq’s external debt was estimated to be around $130 billion. Reducing this debt to a sustainable level ...


1

Yes, but it would have been more risky and more bloody. The US is a superpower. The only one at the time. Iraq was a minor regional power.


1

A "concession" in the oil industry is similar to a "claim" in mining -- it's a right, granted by a government, to explore for oil and extract it when found. The government gets a portion of the oil revenue based on the terms of the contract. The way that oil extraction works, the license covers a specific area of land, ususlly government owned. That's ...


1

As an American, this is a tough one, because I have a lot of respect for what that man did. According to Navy records, he earned a silver star and three bronze stars. I know one silver star veteran personally, and he's frankly a better man than I'll ever be. There have been books (plural) written about the action where he earned it. They don't give those ...


1

A quote from Dick Cheney, at that time Defense Secretary, circa 1991: "If you're going to go in and try to topple Saddam Hussein, you have to go to Baghdad. Once you've got Baghdad, it's not clear what you do with it. It's not clear what kind of government you would put in place of the one that's currently there now. Is it going to be a Shia regime, a Sunni ...


1

maybe they wanted to but political pressure from allies (especially Jordan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia) to withdraw before reaching Baghdad made it impossible. In fact military leaders advised strongly to do just that, drive for Baghdad. Read general Schwartzkopf's autobiography (and that of president Bush Sr. for details) arrest? On what grounds? Kuwait would ...


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