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33

Traditionally, there had been no conscription in Ireland, at least not after the 17th century. Irish did serve in the British army, but only as volunteers. As an occupying country, Britain did not want to 1) antagonize and 2) train Irish soldiers who would be not loyal to them. Irish volunteers, on the other hand, served with pride so they were self-selected ...


31

Legally they were exempt because The Military Service Act (1916) applied to men "ordinarily resident in Great Britain" not men "ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom" But practically, it would have taken more men to supress the inevitable uprising than they would have recruited. John Dillon MP said: If you had passed a Military Service Bill for ...


30

This is a controversial subject both historically and politically. It is not settled history and is debated by historians on both sides of the issue. Given that here is the case made for genocide. Genocide is defined as the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. By that basis I've seen it argued the ...


27

To answer this question, you first have to answer another complex question: Who are the English? This question turns out to be quite complex indeed because to this day scholars are unsure whether to subscribe to an invasionist/migrationist view or a diffusionist view in regards to the Britons, the Celtic people of Great Britain (excluding Scotland) which ...


25

At the risk of being pedantic, it is worth noting that some parts of the three counties traditionally included in the province of Ulster were transferred to the newly created Northern Ireland. However, the overall thrust of your question is correct - the traditional province of Ulster was divided by the Partition of Ireland. The shape of modern Northern ...


23

England lies in the warmest, richest, and most fertile parts of the British Isles. These are modern population figures, but they are indicative of past relative strengths: England, 55 million; Ireland (counting northern Ireland), 6 million; Scotland, 5 million, Wales, 3 million. Frankly, I was surprised at the disparity between England, and all others (14 ...


20

There is no credible evidence that the apostle James ever visited Ireland. According to Acts 12:1-22, James was beheaded in Jerusalem by Herod Agrippa, with no indication that he had traveled. Acts does include passages about other apostles' travels--most notably Paul, but also Philip in Samaria and Peter in Caesarea. The fourth century church historian ...


20

Revolutions and uprisings tend to occur when youth population booms coincide with political or economic oppression. Ireland had a post-WWII baby boom like many Western countries and the 1970's was when enough of those people were in their twenties and unhappy with the situation they were born into. There is something unique about being between 15 and 30: ...


19

This is kind of a wide-ranging question. I'll do my best with it. The Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages consists of Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx. It appears to have differentiated in Ireland, the other branches existing due to conquest/immigration. In particular, Scottish Gaelic pretty much completely replaced the Pictish element in ...


18

The obvious reason for Scotland being "conquered" by England is that King James VI of Scotland was heir to the English throne, and upon the death of Elizabeth I of England (and Ireland) found himself ruling both kingdoms. The larger English population and stronger economy then led to the English language gradually pushing aside both Scottish Gaelic and ...


16

In Common Sense, Thomas Paine wrote, "there is something very absurd in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island." The United States, Canada, and Australia (New Zealand to a lesser extent), were all countries of continental size, far away from England. As such, they naturally wanted to have their own destinies. Scotland, Wales, and ...


16

Ireland was not a threat to Rome By the time the Romans had reached Britain, their empire covered most of western Europe and their resources were becoming stretched. For most of the time they spent in Britain, they were more concerned with holding on to what they had rather than expanding further. Caesar invaded Britain in BCs 55 & 54 to see what was ...


15

Simple answer - it's complicated! The world was very different in 1776 than it was in 1867 or 1900. The US war of independance followed the movement/ideas that led to the French revolution and was a real political/philosophical difference in how you should run a country. It was also concentrated in a few large cities with a large established political class....


14

In "Ptolemy's map of Ireland: a modern decoding,"* R. Darcy and William Flynn discuss Claudius Ptolemy's Geographia, a map (among many other things) mentioning what is believed to be Ireland, dating back to the early second century. Wiki says 140 AD but I could find no other source to corroborate that claim-- but logic suggests Ptolemy made Geographia in his ...


13

Australia achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1986 ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia_Act_1986 ). This occurred for a number of reasons: The UK's entry into the EEC and the exclusion of Australian exports from the UK market; Lingering resentment over the nature of the Dismissal; and, the fact that Australia had been a functionally self-...


13

The problem started with the "flight of the Earls" in 1607. After losing a war to England, the Catholic Ulster nobles Hugh O'Donnell, Hugh O'Neil, and others, fled Ireland for Europe. Meanwhile, England brought in Protestant "settlers" from Scotland to "pacify" Ulster. Thus, the formerly most rebellious province of Ireland became the most pro British. These ...


13

Scotland joining England and Wales: The Darien Disaster was an ill-fated attempt to build a roadway across Central America by the Scots. It was backed by most of the Scottish nobility, and its failure nearly bankrupted them. This in turn, nearly bankrupted the Scottish Treasury. This lead to the Union of the Parliaments between Scotland and England in 1707. ...


11

Furniture has of course been in use for thousands of years before the advent of Christianity. The earliest excavation of furniture artifacts in Britain were found in Skara Brae, Scotland. It is estimated to be from 3100-2500 BC. Due to lack of wood, the inhabitants are thought to have compensated by use of stone as the artifacts included: Stone beds Stone ...


10

World War I is the short answer. Conscription efforts incensed large volumes of the Irish population and the massive casualties sustained as well as economic damage from fighting the war made it harder for the British to respond. I'm sure the 1918 flu didn't help matters any.


10

To invade Ireland, the Romans would first have needed to gain full control of either Wales or the Clyde estuary in Scotland, something they never succeeded in doing. The Romans very much wanted to conquer Ireland, because the Irish were a constant source of weapons and "rebellibus" support to the Scots and Welsh for attacks on Roman communities. During the ...


10

Until 1603, Irish couples could divorce for several reasons (sterility/infertility, impotency, homosexuality, abortion, infanticide, flagrant infidelity, insanity, abandonment...). Marriage was a private contract and up to the council of Trent (1563) clandestine marriages that could be dissolved easily were common. For instance, Irish couples were not ...


10

As far as I'm aware, this was something particular to the early Celtic church in Ireland. Before I attempt to explain further I'd like to add an important caveat in regard to terminology: These days, the term "Celtic Church" has, rightly, fallen out of favour with many (perhaps most) historians. The reason is that the term implies that there was a unified ...


10

The situation in early medieval Ireland was rather unique, as I explained in an answer to another question. The situation there was largely a legacy of the fact that the early monasteries had been founded under Irish Brehon Law. The point made by M & H. Whittock about the attacks in Ireland seems reasonable, although the comment about Aldhelm, abbot of ...


9

It was made illegal in Republican Ireland in 1937. Probably as a reaction to England broadening its laws on the subject.


8

The Faddan More Psalter, dating from around 800 AD, found in a bog in Ireland, is lined with papyrus, leading to suggestions of links between the early Irish Christian Church and the Middle Eastern Coptic Church.


8

Late to this discussion, but relevant, is that the Gaels of Ireland claim to have migrated from Galicia in Spain. In the most popular legend, the son of the King of Galicia climbed a tall tower and spied a green land beyond: Ireland. (Ridiculous, because no mountain is high enough.) He sailed over, liked it, and more settlers followed. In the real world, ...


8

The principal reason that Protestants in Ireland opposed Home Rule was fear of extermination. In every uprising from the Irish Confederate Wars of 1641 to the 1798 rebellion there were numerous massacres of Protestants, and this bred a fear of rule by a Catholic Church dominated majority. After the establishment of the Free State there was a church/state ...


8

Ireland at the time was under British rule and Britain didn't adopt the Gregorian calendar until 1752 so it would still officially be on the Julian calender and written records would use this. Since Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calender much sooner (it being introduced by pope Gregory) it's possible that Catholic church sources, especially those ...


7

A lot of the records were lost when the Dublin Public Record Office was blown up in 1922. But see http://www.gov.ie/en/essays/genealogy.html


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