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36

"Islam influence"? "Italian Renaissance was caused by Islamic influence?" Of course these statements are incorrect. There was some influence of SCIENCE which was cultivated by scholars living in Islamic countries. Not the influence of Islam itself. More precisely, this influence was the following: During the Dark Age in Europe, most of ...


32

The two claims are not incompatible. There was certainly a very large Islamic influence on the Italian Renaissance. Many classical texts are largely known to us through transmission via the Islamic world. For example, see Wikipedia's article on the Transmission of the Greek Classics. Interpretations of the classical texts, like those of Aristotle, were ...


30

To begin with, when the air campaign ahead of Operation Husky (the campaign that culminated with the invasion of Sicily) began, the Allies already had a significant numerical superiority over the Axis air forces in the theatre: Operation HUSKY air planners had nearly 5,000 operational aircraft at their disposal compared to the 1,500–1,600 Axis aircraft ...


29

The invasion of Italy was a huge psychological success for the Allies. It caused the Italian government to overthrow Mussolini in a coup d'etat and join the Allies. One (admittedly the weakest) of the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis had fallen before the Allies lost one of their major powers (Britain, the Soviet Union or China) to the Axis. From this point of view, ...


23

All things considered and with perfect hindsight, did the Allies benefit, by having Italy fight on Germany's side rather than remain neutral? No. While the popular impression is that Germany had to "bail out" Italy more often than not, this does not mean they were a net burden on the Axis. On the contrary, Italy opened up the Mediterranean and African ...


18

The Norman kingdom in South Italy was certainly not a papal project. On the contrary, the popes tried to oppose the growing Norman power, by diplomatic and military means. Matters came to a particular head in 1053 in the battle of Civitate where the Normans defeated the Pope's army and took him prisoner. But eventually, when the papacy realized the Normans ...


18

The core of the Triple Alliance was Germany and Austria-Hungary who promised to protect each other against attack by any third party. Italy was an "adjunct" member, who promised and was promised protection against attack only by France. But Italy "opted out" because Austria-Hungary had violated a clause in the treaty to consult with Italy ...


16

Mussolini learnt about the German intentions first as did most other countries, by diplomatic reports from his ambassador in Berlin and similar sources; alarmed, in early August 1939, Mussolini sent Galeazzo Ciano for a meeting with Ribbentrop, who told him Germany intended to invade the whole of Poland, not just Danzig. Mussolini was clearly against it, ...


15

Italy was (and is) an industrial and financial powerhouse - Mussolini was an ineffective wartime leader, but the resources his nation lent Hitler were essential to continuing the war. Removing Italy from the Axis sphere of influence was high on the list of Allied strategic goals - remember, the Allies' game plan was to deny Germany the means to make war in ...


15

According to Niall Ferguson in The Ascent of Money, they aren't balls, but coins. (I listened to the audiobook so I can't provide a page citation.) I'm somewhat suspicious because the blazon for the arms is "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France (viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or" ...


14

The masks of the Venetian carnival are based in the characters of the Commedia Dell'Arte, a sort of improvisational theatre born in Italy during the 15th century. The top photo is a volto (a generic mask) with an over-the-top chaperon, a kind of hoodie that evolved in a hat during the 15th century and it was in fashion all around Western Europe. The woman ...


13

The claim is true if we take "Italian" as meaning modern standard Italian. At the time of Italy's unification, what we know today as "Italian" was more of a literary language than a vernacular one. The 2.5% figure cited is a lower bound figure, but the higher end only goes up to 12% or so. Either way, only a small minority of Italy's inhabitants spoke it. ...


12

Florence, Milan, Venice, and Genoa were the most important city-states of Renaissance Italy. This distinction is the chief attribute shared by these four cities. Of course, that's a bit of an intrinsically subjective statement. There were several major players, and it is difficult to quantify something as nebulous as "importance". Nontheless this particular ...


12

SHORT ANSWER The story isn't true. It most likely stems from an inaccurate account by the English writer A. N. Wilson. It is also possible that Wilson's version has been 'blended' with a piece of fiction by a Dutch writer, Dick Raaymakers. There is also at least one other false 'version' of the 'Mussolini, Laurel & Hardy & bowler hat' story. ...


11

Sort of, but he was not recognized by all the electors, some of whom elected another candidate. I can find no evidence that he was ever confirmed as bishop by the Holy See. In short, it's complicated... Canon James of Tonengo, previously chaplain to Pope Urban IV (d.1264), was one of two Bishops of Vercelli elected by different factions of electors: James ...


10

What I think happened here is a case of gradual exaggeration. Benito Mussolini, who started the Italian Fascist party, was a socialist. But he got kicked out of the socialist party for supporting Italian involvement in WWI. Since he was no longer in the socialist party, he started his own organization, which eventually became the fascist party. Although ...


10

Cosimo di Medici inherited a thriving "banking" business from his father Giovanni, who was the "Fred Trump" of the family, with Cosimo being like the current President of the United States. Most people "get into" something by starting small; a smart or lucky few get "big" and become very successful. Giovanni had inherited a small time moneylending business ...


9

Lucky Luciano, with other Mafias, provided great network of informants and intelligence to allies in Operation Underworld and Operation Husky- Invasion of Sicily during WWII. Operation Underworld (1942-1945): After the SS Normandie incident, Navy contacted Meyer Lansky, a known associate of Lucky Luciano, to deal with possible Mussolini supporters ...


9

The League of the Sublime and Perfect Masters (Sublime Perfect Masters / Society of Perfect Sublime Masters) was a conspiratorial and revolutionary society, one of the Carbonari groups. It was created in 1818 by Filippo Buonarroti and it operated as a Masonic Lodge. Its headquarters were in Turin and its immediate goal was independence from Austria. Its ...


9

As T.E.D. already mentioned, titles were tied to the territory, and mostly didn't change unless a feudal lord higher up in the "foodchain" granted one of its vassals a higher title (it usually came with further land and possessions as well). Also, once you fulfilled certain requirements to create a title, you could do so (great example, the British Empire, ...


9

There was no stronger state. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies at the time was ruled by a cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. These were foreigners, Spaniards in particular. There was no affection for their rule locally, and they owed their position to the fact that foreign powers had placed them there, and continued to replace them after various revolts and ...


9

I see three flags: Left center appears to have 3 vertically oriented stripes, with a dark stripe closest to the staff; based on @Justcal 's comment, this is probably France. Center right which is more properly a pennant or ensign than a flag and dark with a yellow rosette. Quite possibly the Japanese Imperial Banner. (Hat tip to @ezekiel and @justcal ) ...


8

This is answered in the Wikipedia article lede: The Tripartite Pact was directed primarily at the United States. Since the US finally entered WWII in late 1941, the pact can be considered very early, foreseeing eventual conflict with the US. Before this, Germany already had alliances with Japan and Italy (Anti-Comintern Pact) as early as 1936. Prior to the ...


8

Short Answer: The Swiss and Piedmontese coats of arms and flags might both possibly, repeat possibly, have originated as symbols of loyalty to the Holy Roman Empire. Long answer: Flags and coats of arms of Switzerland and Piedmont are certainly visually related. The question of whether they are historically related is complex and has no certain answer. ...


8

Short answer: there is no short answer. It depends on a lot of factors, legal opinions, and definitions. We might look at an initial agreement, and get a number. But that number is difficult to translate into real-world value. And what exactly was included or excluded by that one agreement is, as evidenced by this very question, still a matter of dispute. ...


7

Sorry to drag up this post from 2014 but I am looking to reinvigorate it based on a Research Paper that I am in the middle of writing. I have no desire to theorise on what could have happened but rather on understanding whether the Strategic Mistake question could be looked at from two different levels - Strategic with respect to the War and Grand Strategic ...


7

There is an element of truth to what your friend told you. Civilization, so to speak, as manifested by the Italian Renaissance was sparked by a Spanish influence, however, the transfer was largely Christian in character. In other words, what kind of happened is that the Arabs invaded Spain and instituted a culture, then the Europeans defeated them, absorbed ...


7

The collar badge specifically appears to be that of the Italian 17th Infantry "Acqui" Motorized Brigade. An infantry unit named Acqui operated from 1831 to 1871, again from 1881 to 1926, from 1939 until its massacre by the Germans in 1943, and from 1948 until the present. Most recently, since a reorganization as of October 1, 1976, it has been a motorized ...


7

There were three major players in Italy: 1) France 2) Spain/Holy Roman Empire (HRE) (treat them as one unit since one man, Charles V, ruled both, and 3) Venice, the "local bully." The first stage of the war started when the other Italian states asked two large, outside powers, France and Spain/HRE to help them against Venice. That's why it was the League of ...


6

Italy was an ally of Germany, not an occupied country (except for the North in 1943-1945, which was not, technically, occupied). They made, e.g., Fiat_G.55 in Turin which saw action against the allied air forces. In general, Germany had the full use of the whole of French, Czech &c industries (except for those which were destroyed by allied bombing and/...


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