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11

Sort of, but he was not recognized by all the electors, some of whom elected another candidate. I can find no evidence that he was ever confirmed as bishop by the Holy See. In short, it's complicated... Canon James of Tonengo, previously chaplain to Pope Urban IV (d.1264), was one of two Bishops of Vercelli elected by different factions of electors: James ...


9

I see three flags: Left center appears to have 3 vertically oriented stripes, with a dark stripe closest to the staff; based on @Justcal 's comment, this is probably France. Center right which is more properly a pennant or ensign than a flag and dark with a yellow rosette. Quite possibly the Japanese Imperial Banner. (Hat tip to @ezekiel and @justcal ) ...


4

There are several factors which contribute to the decline of Italian Immigration in the specified time frame, but to understand them we need better information. The source indicated does not help because it is only looking at information in 10 year increments and reveals no numerical information. Another source about the History of Italian Immigration has a ...


3

I found a little information which seems to match the individual you are asking about, matching the name and birth date given. A search through 19th century works came up with a hit in the 1889 Annuario della nobiltà italiana . This seems to give a simple family list. Letting Google attempt to translate the clip has the following interesting results: ...


3

Relative obsolescence and lack of mobility 75/32 Mod. 1937 was apparently never used in North Africa. This was relatively modern gun, with dual purpose (indirect artillery and anti-tank role, similar to Soviet ZiS-3). However, production was slow, with only 5 pieces completed in 1937-39, up to 30 in 1940-41, 44 in 1942, and 98 in first half of 1943 before ...


3

I haven't found any first hand source from before or during the March on Rome, but in the iconografic after, it looks like the source of inspiration was Caesar's March on Rome. In the "mutilated by war house" built during fascit period (1938-1942) there where some mosaic representing Caesar passing the Rubicon and Mussolini's March on Rome (the ...


2

Italian Wikipedia states Martino Avogadro di Quaregna † ( 1244 - deceased July 1268 ) Vacant See (1268-1273) Aimone di Challant † (21 December 1273 - 19 June 1303 died) But: The arch-diocese itself lists as bishop: Aimone di Challant (1268 – 19 giugno 1305)


1

A classic in the field would be Fernand Braudel's Out of Italy, 1450–1650, though if you are primarily interested in the Renaissance, I would likely pick an earlier start date to properly include the likes of Dante and Petrarca.


1

The Italian government spent a lot on military equipment in 1930-35, and at the end of that period, Italy was well-armed by the standards of the time. However, from 1935, the costs of wars in Ethiopia, Spain, and Albania dominated the military budget, preventing much expenditure on equipment. This happened at the same time that Germany was demonstrating a ...


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