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74

There is a 1946 book by John Hersey, Hiroshima, which is an excellent compilation of personal testimonies from Hiroshima residents following the atomic bombing. Although it doesn’t mention Allied leafleting specifically, there’s a few important things it indicates about civilian perceptions of the threat at the time, namely It was abundantly clear to ...


49

No. At least, not to any practical intent or purpose. Japanese in Britain Significant numbers of Japanese were actually sold into slavery overseas during the 16th century, mostly through Portuguese merchants. Aside from chattel slavery, Portuguese sailors also bought young Japanese women as concubines, and it would not have been unthinkable if one ...


33

Yes, there were. Below are examples from Siam, the Philippines, China, Mexico and Indonesia. Ayutthaya (Siamese Kingdom) Probably the best known one was Yamada Nagamasa (born 1590, died 1630) in the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Over a period of 15 years, he ...rose from the low Thai nobility rank of Khun to the senior of Ok-ya, his title becoming Ok-ya ...


32

It's a scarecrow, but, in Japan, the setting up of the scarecrow is a ritualized process: ... the Scarecrow Festival or Kakashi Matsuri takes place in autumn, from 8th-16th September [Dates were specific to a locaton]... Japanese farmers invited the god of agriculture to leave his home in the mountains each spring and enter their scarecrows, called kakashi. ...


29

There would seem to be quite a number of possibilities, including: Businessmen Japanese business interests in India were extensive between the two world wars. Putting this together with "In the 1880s, 23 percent of prominent Japanese businessmen were from the samurai class; by the 1920s 35% were." (as cited by ed.hank from Wikipedia Samurai in his comment),...


24

Addis Hiwet first used the term 'Japanizer' to one group of modernisers in post-WWI Ethiopia who took the example of Meiji Japan as giving a model for development away from feudal forms. The model emphasized the forced development of capitalism, education, military modernisation and many similar ideas perceived as those used by Meiji Japan to develop quickly ...


20

It's referring to kemari, a variation of an ancient Chinese game of kicking a ball-like object around. Originally a military training exercise, it evolved into a sport played by teams of 12 - basically, proto-football - during the Han and Tang dynasties, before spreading to Japan around AD 600 along with the spread of Buddhism. Note that the original source, ...


18

(Some) Indians, and (some) Japanese share a common religion, Buddhism. This religion was founded in India in the sixth century B. C.,spread over East Asia, and found its way to Japan in the sixth century C.E. A young Japanese Buddhist, samurai or not, might be interested in visiting northern India in the 1920s in order to trace his religious "roots." That ...


18

I suspect this is a misleading interpretation of a custom. The rumbling power of the taiko has also been long been associated with the gods, and has been appropriated by the religions of Japan. According to Daihachi Oguchi of Osuwa-daiko, about four thousand years ago, in the Jomon period , taiko was used for to signal various activities in the village. ...


17

It doesn't seem that either city knew with certainty that it was going to be subject to attack (nuclear or otherwise) on those specific days. Japan in general was experiencing relentless bombing. There were at least some evacuations in both cities, but these were not necessarily the result of the leaflets per se. About Hiroshima, a Wikipedia page (the ...


15

Tropical environments like Guadalcanal are rather abundant with food, if you know enough to find it. That of course is the key. That generally requires native knowledge, gathered through generations of observation and (often dangerous) trial-and-error. But there is a limit. Hunting and gathering just doesn't support as many people for the same acreage as ...


14

1: Could there have been young Japanese women in Great Britain in the mid-1600s? This seems extraordinarily unlikely. According to the British Chamber of Commerce in Japan 1600 William Adams, a seaman from Kent, becomes the first Briton to arrive in Japan. 1832 Three sailors from Aichi Prefecture—Otokichi, Kyukichi and Iwakichi—cross the Pacific Ocean from ...


13

Based on the scant information I'm finding in English and online, a proper answer to this might be difficult even with some serious library research. Here is a brief mention from the book Vanishing Japan: Traditions, Crafts & Culture by Elizabeth Kiritani, which unfortunately includes no footnotes: Ice made from water that was naturally frozen in the ...


12

"US" and "consider" are rather broad terms. I can't find any evidence that the Manhattan Project targeting committee ever considered anything other than conventional military targets, but there were plenty of other people throwing out ideas of what should be hit. A rather informal analysis of "blowing the top off a mountain" ...


10

Air defense is not a trivial matter Everything in war (and in life) costs resources like raw materials, industrial capacity, workforce and crews for the weapons, and perhaps most importantly the time. Japan never had abundance of these, especially in the late war period 1944-45. Let's look at some of the requirements for successful air defense. Anti-...


9

According to this reference the Soviets fielded anti-tank guns and were aided by fog: The 11th Tank Regiment also attacked the Soviet forces. About 40 Japanese tanks run over the Soviet soldiers and rushed into the beach. The Soviet soldiers fired to the tanks with AT guns, which were unloaded on the beach in a hurry. As a fog gathered over the beach, it ...


9

It is a misunderstanding to talk of an unified Japan during the Tokugawa period with respect to having its own army, etc. These notions only become relevant after the concept of the "nation of Japan" was created in the 1860's and 1870's. In effect, every han or domain was its separate state though they paid homage to the Tokugawa overlords. These ...


8

We don't know for sure. We know very little about Murasaki Shikibu's life, and much of what we do know is highly circumstantial. There are no direct attestations of either her birth or death. Mainstream theories all place her birth between 970 and 978, which means she married Fujiwara no Nobutaka when she was between 20 to 28 years old. It is impossible to ...


7

A subject on which entire books have been written, some of the basic source information: US 6th Army report on the Japanese plans for the defense of Kyushu can be found at the CARL site, specifically here: http://cgsc.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p4013coll8/id/1148/rec/3 The summary of this report, in part states: “By the end of July 1945, ...


7

The best defense is a good offense If we only defend, we lose the war ~ Kembai Shimata. This answer will not duplicate the resource analysis a couple of the others did, but approaches the question based on the strategic concept of the Japanese war effort from 1939 through about 1943/44 - after which point the noose had began to tighten, US unrestricted ...


7

A quick dash at Google . . . Some sources report that there were some 600 coast watchers, others report a count of 700; of whom, regardless of the total serving, 38 lost their lives. Using the lower number, that is about a 6% loss rate. See anzacportal and Navy.gov.au from which you can download this PDF article on the subject and coastwatchers presents ...


6

If you look at the Battle of Okinawa, you'll see that these guys were still well able to dish it out, even this late in the war. This is not the Volksturm in Germany late 44 and 45. A determinant factor was largely whether the local Japanese commander in charge would be dumb - suicide charges - or clever - anything but suicide charges. At Okinawa, one ...


6

There are two main factors capacity, and time. The destruction of the Dutch East Indies oil fields meant that they produced at only 60% of earlier capacity when Japan managed to restore them. This restoration took place a year later. Capturing the oil fields intact would have meant 100% of capacity available in early 1942 instead of 60% in early 1943. Also, ...


5

By 1945, believe it or not, there were such things as radios, film and photo cameras, aircraft, and cars that could and were used to relay the information to the Japanese high command in minutes. There were also, contrary to popular belief, quite a few survivors on the ground to tell their story, including military personel. Even if nobody came running to ...


5

The Dutch hired Japanese mercenaries to conquer the Banda islands in 1621. They were not gentle. @Tom Au alludes to this, I think.


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