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46

The "classification" of Jews in Nazi Germany (and occupied territories) was governed by the Nuremberg laws and based on "heritage." Basically, someone with no Jewish grandparents was considered non-Jewish; someone with one or two Jewish grandparents was considered "mixed," and someone with three or four Jewish grandparents was considered Jewish. Because of ...


36

You can find a very detailed description of how Jews integrated into English society here. The only bit directly about the Sabbath is this: Another feature of the Jewish religion which tended to set its adherents apart was Sabbath observance. Two aspects of this were evident to the general public. First, that Jews did not trade on Saturday. H. Miles ...


23

They weren't in fact far apart at all. Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the Achaemenid Empire, which encompassed Israel. Its actually even closer than this map implies though. In the period of time that a large amount of the Hebrew scriptures were first being written down, a large part of the Jewish nation was living in exile (slavery) in Babylon. ...


13

Reform Judaism does not view the Sabbath as irrevocable holy day and the movement which started mid 19th century grew considerable so that your remark "they were indistinguishable from non-jews European people and led similar lives outside of religious matters" is only valid for this branch. I would even say that the integration and non-conspiciousness of ...


11

There is quite a problem in concluding that that decree even existed in the first place, as it is now interpreted, whether it is really about circumcision or castration. If it existed, who decreed it, and what exactly it contained or how it was to be applied is equally debated. The available evidence from Roman sources is extraordinary weak and most works ...


11

Depends on the era and circumstances USSR was officially atheist, and all religion institutions were tightly monitored and controlled. However, every religion was not in same position, and level of persecution (or lack of) varied throughout the years. In early years of USSR, many of the communist leaders were themselves Jewish. Antisemitism was strictly ...


9

There is a problem with answering this question, and it lies in the fact that Jewish sources prior to Jesus but after the translation of the Pentateuch into Greek are fairly sparse. There are some Greek texts from Qumran, but the number of Greek biblical texts is negligible. Emanuel Tov has an article on this, called "The Nature of the Greek Texts from the ...


8

All religious institutions in the USSR were treated as honeypots, and that, of course, was true about Jewish institutions doubly both because of traditional antisemitism and the fact that Judaism associates all Jews around the world was incompatible with the soviet "шпиономания" (obsession with espionage threat). E.g., Teaching Hebrew was a felony "...


8

No: he just had the same name. The "five books of Moses" are so called because they were believed to have been written by the Moses whose life is described within them. They are actually known in Hebrew as the chumash (which means a set of five) or as the Torah ("instruction"), while the word Pentateuch (also, a set of five) comes from Greek They have ...


7

The Jewish population was not expelled in 70. At least Josephus, our the main source on that war does not say this. Jerusalem was destroyed, and the Temple was robbed, burned and closed (closed few years after the siege). He also mentions that lands belonging to the Jews were confiscated. But he does not say that population was expelled.


7

From what I heard (Russian with some family stories about WW2 from the Red POV), it was much simpler on the East Front from 1941 to 1943 at least. Once you are in custody of Nazis or local Nazi helpers, and: you are a communist by admitting this or having the member's book on you or by declaration the local Nazi helpers, your neighbour, whatever you are ...


5

There was not the image of YHWH. But there were several images, depictions, idols, some of them survive. This is him in happier times, still not divorced, with his lovely wife: Image on pithos sherd found at Kuntillet Ajrud below the inscription "Yahweh and his Asherah" The Adam and Eve perspective seems –– strange? The name of his consort is/...


5

There is no common accepted notion of what a Jew means. Some people think it is religion, other people think that this means descendence from people who were Jews. (I do not think anyone bases this notion of citizenship of language: the population of Israel is diverse, and people called Jews can have any native tongue). The need in strict, legal definition ...


5

I'm not sure what you mean by "secular" - as opposed to the New Testament gospels? There is an abundance of material in the writings of Josephus: specifically in Jewish War and Antiquities of the Jews, both of which were originally written in Greek. He speaks of their philosophical beliefs and the actions of various individual Sadducees, although he writes ...


5

I think, no. I think this film's plot was not intended as criticism of Hitler. To understand it one should have idea about Nazi mentality. They did not consider themselves as some tyrants that suppress people but rather a protection of the people from such tyrants who are manipulated by the Jews and uses foreign support to seize power. Beside this, the ...


4

One of the main sources, Cassius Dio, says that Hadrian renamed Jerusalem, and as a result of this the uprising started: This source is considered trustworthy in general.


4

I can't speak to that decree specifically, but Roman bureaucracy was, by modern standards, ludicrously small and ineffective. There's a very good chance that it was enforced (or not) according to the whims of the local town government. We have correspondence between Pliny the Younger (then governor of Pontus/Bithynia) and Trajan (Hadrian's immediate ...


4

Q: Was Freud the first to make the connection between monotheism and Aten? There are a couple of uncertainties encapsulated in this question. If you want to know which Western researcher first discovered that Akhenaten's religious reform in Egypt was "somehow" monotheistic: we have to observe that there are just a few stations in the discovery: 1714 ...


4

Khazaria was multi ethnic state whose focus to facilitate international commerce through transcaucasus and the Pontic steppe region. Its core was composed primarily of a Turkic, or Turco-Iranian, and Slavic component. The Slavs remained in the region and became considerable part of the Rus. Khazaria also ruled over numerous other subject peoples, mostly ...


4

A quick search brings up the book The Mughal World: Life in India's Last Golden Age By Abraham Eraly, pg 284, which seems to have some figures for this particular time and reign: Another source, History Of Aurangzib Vol. 3, by Sarkar, Jadunath, shows the same information:


3

Converting from comment to answer: Genesis 11:29 Mainstream medieval French Jewish commentator, Rashi, holds that Sarah (Abraham's wife) is the same as his niece, Iscah. 19:2 Abraham tells Abimelech that Sarah is his sister. (In a a similar incident,in Egypt, Abraham tells Sarah to say this, implying that it is a fabrication, or at least misleading) 20:12 ...


3

A look at the minutes of the Wannseekonferenz ('Wannsee Conference') might be an instructive thing to consider for this question. It is fairly long in full but perhaps the part that talks about what constituted a Jew in this context will work. The Nuremburg laws weren't the full extent of it (and yes indeed they used the term half-breeds) even for the Final ...


3

He's probably not the very first, but no one would have predated him by more than about 40 years, and I'd be very surprised if anyone else did it quite like he did. As background, Atenism was a religion that Pharoh Akhenaten tried to convert Egypt to around the 14th Century BC for all of 20 years. It was thereafter roundly suppressed. Because this religion ...


3

Some people say that the Tetrateuch (the first four books of the Torah) were written in 8th-7th century Judah. Most people think it was composed entirely during the Babylonian Exile. The exile lasted until the 450s B.C. when Ezra left Babylon. The Jews who were sent to repopulate Judah back in 530 were poor upstarts. Ezra returned during Artaxerxes I, who ...


3

(Edit: Whoops, sorry, I assumed you were USian, but I see you're UKian, so this is more of an aside than an answer.) According to Wikipedia, the five day work week was adopted across the US in the 1940s, and accommodation for Jewish workers actually contributed to its evolution (emphasis mine): In 1908, the first five-day workweek in the United States ...


3

Our understanding of the composition and redaction of biblical texts has developed enormously over the course of the 20th century alone - let alone since the days in which Isaac Newton published his Observations! The ascription to Ezra of the editing process (while not an invention of Newton's) reflects on a general tendency to ascribe authorship to ...


3

It is a common misconception in the West to confuse Jews and Judaism, and as a consequence, antisemitism with attitude to Judaism. In Europe, especially in Eastern Europe, "Jew" does not mean religion, but means "ethnic origin" (whatever this means). Most people designated as Jews in Soviet Union were not religious. The question is about religion (Judaism) ...


2

According to Josephus's account Jerusalem was razed to the ground & most of those who didn't perish from starvation in the seige were killed defending the Temple. From what Josephus writes it seems like there was: No Jerusalem. It suffered a similar fate to Carthage by being utterly destroyed. There weren't many Jews left to expel. We know many ...


2

The Wikipedia article on Hellenistic Judaism includes references to Greek speaking, Hellenistic Jews: It is therefore no wonder that there were synagogues of the Libertines, Cyrenians, Alexandrians, Cilicians, and Asiatics in the Holy City itself (Acts vi. 9) The reference is to "Hellenism", Jewish Encyclopedia, Quote: from 'Range of Hellenic Influence' ...


2

There is none (although see below for theories). It may help to recall briefly what the Torah, the five books, also called the Pentateuch, say. In the first book, known as Genesis to the Greeks, which means the Beginning, Abraham is an ordinary citizen who is born in Ur, which is ruled by the Chaldeans. Ur is in Sumeria in Mesopotamia. He then travels a ...


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