36

They most probably got that knowledge from cultural exchange with the greek city-states from southern France, like Massilia (Marseille), which was founded around 600 BCE and had plenty of relations with the sorrounding celtic tribes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Marseille


22

It apparently happened during Caesar's campaign against Scipio and Juba in 47BC, part of the wider Roman Civil War that was fought from 49–45BC. The story was recorded by Suetonius (Life of Julius Caesar: 59). The quote, as it has come down to us from Suetonius, was: "teneo te," inquit, "Africa." or "I hold you, Africa", he said. Although amusing ...


17

I would suggest reading Book 1 of The Gallic Wars (link has both English and Latin if you want to see the untranslated text), which is as much a political history of the conquest of Gaul as it is a military history. Julius Caesar starts the book with a description of the political landscape at the time: All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which ...


17

It is, perhaps easier to understand when compared with a map: image source Wikimedia CC BY-SA 4.0 Now, Caesar's meaning should be a little more clear. When he says: "The Belgae rises from the extreme frontier of Gaul, extend to the lower part of the river Rhine; and look toward the north and the rising sun" We can see that the territory of the Belgae ...


16

Although Julius Caesar did not at first consider Sextus Pompey to be a significant threat, he eventually sent forces against him when his old rival's youngest son began to gather strength. Sextus Pompeius, unlike his elder brother Gnaeus Pompeius, escaped after the Battle of Munda in 45 BC and continued to elude Caesar's forces. According to Appian, ...


13

It's quite possible, but don't be so credulous of Caesar's judgement and reporting. Not everything he's written has turned out to be 100% accurate. I don't know about the nuances of the original Latin, but that translation reads "they use Greek characters". That's not the same thing as using the Greek language. Right now, this post is using Latin ...


12

Performing first a search for all occurrences of "German" and then of "civiliz" in The Gallic Wars suggests that the most relevant passage is from Chapter 24 from Book 6 (my emphasis): Chapter 24 And there was formerly a time when the Gauls excelled the Germans in prowess, and waged war on them offensively, and, on account of the great ...


10

they were not killed or sold into slavery unless a breach of loyality occured. That would end Caesars ability to hold the givers in sway through them, and enrage the gauls (hostages were demanded to ensure peace) Scanning over the Commentari I have found numerous examples when gallic tribes sent mutually hostages into each others keeping when they made ...


9

This is an interesting question, and one which I have heard debated by Roman historians/archaeologists more than once. You are right that in his Life of Marc Antony, Plutarch says: Antony himself was commanded to leave the senate by the consul Lentulus. So, leaving them with execrations, and disguising himself in a servant's dress, hiring a carriage ...


8

I subscribe to the simpler explanation: Sextus Pompey was overshadowed by his elder brother Gnaues Pompeius (Pompey the Younger) and, of course, their father - Pompey (Pompey the Great). Until their passing, the decisions and actions taken by this family were always attributed to Sextus' elder brother and father. So, I think your "possible answers" really ...


8

I don't think Caesar was a hippie, but like a lot of young folk in history, did do things in dress and deportment to annoy the older generations. A Companion to Julius Caesar (Google Books Link) summarizes a lot of the various controversies over Caesar and his tunic. The ultimate sources are Suetonius, Lives of the 12 Caesars and several cracks by Cicero ...


7

First of all, there is inscriptional evidence that the Eastern Greek Alphabet was indeed used to write the Gaulish language in gallia narbonensis. The actual alphabet and some inscriptions are shown in the Wikipedia article on the Gaulish language. The reason for the adoption of this alphabet is obviously the Greek colony at Marseille. This was not the only ...


6

Other answers indicate the prevalence of colonization, I add this one to suggest a reason why remote colonies would be founded (it's a long way from Britain and France to Greece). If you want to make bronze you must have tin (and copper). Europe has very few sources of tin. Therefore, throughout ancient times it was imported long distances from the known ...


6

You are attempting to distinguish between the Latin term for the individual who governed a province in place of the Republic's Consuls, Proconsul, and the modern English functional term for such an individual, Governor. Such a distinction is meaningless; The terms have an identical meaning when referring to individuals who exercised consular power in a ...


6

Most important: nobody was interested in reducing or abolishing slavery. Roman society, and all Mediterranean societies, were slave-based. Caesar would not gain any popularity by reducing the number of slaves. More the opposite. Reducing the number of slaves was never an issue in Rome. For the Romans only the poverty of Roman citizens mattered. Roman ...


5

I've been wondering whether to expand on why neither of the versions is entirely accepted. I've decided to add this as a separate answer so as to avoid creating any further confusion in my answer above. This is, perhaps, even more appropriate as what follows is really little more than a footnote, to a footnote to history. The differences between the texts ...


4

In addition to the answer already given, the Celts were certainly aware of the Greeks by the 3rd century BCE, as they had formed a colony in Asia minor and were slowly being Hellenized. It's not beyond the realms of possibility that the Celts in Anatolia kept in contact, due to trade or personal relationships, with those still in Gaul, and in the process ...


4

Caesar did not depart "for Parthia". Although that was later embellished to be on his table as plans, it is not what he did. He returned to Rome to hold an "unpopular triumph", after he defeated his main opponents in name (Labienus, Gnaeus) and he did seek out Pompeius's sons, 'pacifying the land', destroying the places where he believed them to hide. This ...


3

Actually, correct quote is : "teneo te, Africa". In Suetone's text, it reads : "teneo te, inquit, Africa" but "inquit" (and note "inuit"), only means "he said".


3

To answer the specific question asked, I think @Jos 's comment "Basically anything that would fly. Up to and including parking a chariot on a handicap spot. It would be a political show trial." is exactly correct. The question behind the questions is why?, and that's more interesting. The previous eighty years had seen ever-increasing convulsions ...


3

The real problem of that time in Rome was the concentration of power in one person, and the risk of having a absolute monarch. While Rome was a small nation, they prevented this problem having two consuls per year (each consul with an army), and since the distances were small, Senate did not lose control over them. But while the country grows more and more, ...


3

Julius Caesar established the Julian calendar as the official calendar of the Roman government, army, and religion and the civil calendar to be used by Roman citizens. Many cities and provinces in the Roman Empire also came to use the Julian calendar. There is a difference between a calendar and a calendar era. A calendar era is a moment in time that later ...


2

The point was not the disbandment of his army but that he could not be charged with crimes as long as he was consul. So his enemys wanted to bring the election forward in order to get a chance to drive him off the office. I don't know all the specifics but I read that the main point was that he enacted laws without the proper ratification of the Roman ...


2

Being a paid field worker and a settled farmer are quite not the same. Owning land means independence and place in the community (And the ability to be conscripted as pre-Marian legionary. Although by the time of Caesar proletarii were often taken into the army) I doubt that the "mobs" of the Urbs would have had happily left Rome to do slave's work in some ...


1

This is very good question. Suetonius really wrote that Caesar said it. By the way, its position in Suetonius' book indicates that this statement is, according to Suetonius, a blasphemy and thus this idea does not serve to Caesar's honor. By other hand, Onasander describes in Strategikos the same situation and the same statement, but his story is about ...


1

I'm enjoying the Landmark Julius Caesar, and I had the same question: Roman conduct towards foreign hostages


1

This question is fairly generic and broad as logistics of a people or entity are researchable easily through any public domain or internet search. Look up any history of the Gauls or a European history textbook and you will find details on this. I don't have my sources handy but from what I can recollect from my knowledge of the Republic.. As far as we ...


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