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8

Firstly, it is worth noting that the Black Death actually reached England in June 1348, not in the twelfth century as you stated. But to answer your specific question, no the idea of appointing escheators wasn't caused by the Black Death. The system for of appointing escheators was initiated in 1232, and by 1341 had already achieved the form that was to ...


6

The question seems to assume the existence of immigration controls, which are a fairly modern invention. The first US law restricting (voluntary) immigration in any significant way wasn't passed until 1875*. Prior to that, the general process in the Americas was to control naturalization (citizenship), but not immigration. Of course anyone wanting to live ...


31

Peter Leeson from George Mason University has argued that medieval trial by ordeal worked because people believed that they worked. Thus, only the innocent were willing to undergo the ordeal. If this theory is correct, presumably the ordeal also separated the guilty and innocent via the same mechanism at the time of Hammurabi. I argue that medieval ...


42

It was a divine judgement in cases where the evidence was inconclusive and previous attempts to resolve the case had failed. In some cases at least, it was only used after other attempts at a resolution had failed. We can't be certain why it was considered a valid outcome as there is insufficient evidence, but it is likely that the apparent verdict of a god ...


15

Well, if we can change venue to Alexandria, which was a Roman city in Egypt with roughly similar standing to Antioch (they both housed a Christian Patriarch), and roll the date forward by only 5 years, then the fate of Hypatia might be a pretty good guide. The short version is that she was a pagan philosopher, who was well-liked in the pagan community, and ...


7

In 361-363 the Empire was ruled by a pagan emperor. His successors were Christian, but the empire was still a multi-religious state. It is only in 381 (under Theodosius) that introduction of uniformity and persecution of non-Christians began. So you can expect blasphemy laws from that time only and they were gradually introduced. The citation from John ...


1

To blaspheme which god? In 363, if you blasphemed the pagan gods, an emperor wrote disparagingly about your city. If you blasphemed Christ, the Persian army slew you at Samarra. This doesn't apply to the other years. It's interesting that you included Julian's reign.


5

I worked in land development in Texas and studied surveying in college. Excess land in old surveys was a very common problem mainly because the methods used to conduct the surveys in the old days was not near as precise as they would become later. The professors even mentioned the exact term "feeling their oats." They had a tendency, when land was ...


7

Why do universities prefer to have their own police force? I can address this a little bit in the United States context. As you noted, the rise of campus police forces came after campus protests in the 1960s. Many state legislatures passed laws that instructed college administrators to address "disorder," such as this one in New York state from 1969: ...


23

This goes back to Frederick Barbarossa. He granted the university the so called scholar's privilege the privilegium scholasticum or authentica habita in 1150s. Full universities had to be granted papal or princely privileges to be founded but from 1150s on they had judicial autonomy. It was the result of active and collective defiance of students and ...


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