As you know from my answer to your earlier question, the best preserved tablets containing the standard Akkadian version of the Gilgameš Epic were discovered in the Library of Ashurbanipal in Nineveh by Hormuzd Rassam in 1853, and are now held in the British Museum.
A number of those tablets are available as high-resolution images from the British Museum ...
The use elongated or long dice has been noted for a number of cultures and they seem to have been associated with particular games over many centuries. Archer St. Clair in Carving as Craft notes that these
had largely been replaced by cubical dice in the Roman world by the
second century AD.
St. Clair adds that
they are usually made from the shafts ...
You are correct.
According to this site (unfortunately in German) about the Roman Empire there were many different types of dice in use by the Romans. Apart from the 6-sided cubes we know today there were also rod-shaped dice with four or six sides.
The website reports:
"For many games of dice of the ancient times one required only four possible ...
Yes. To just quote Robert Nedoma fantastic page on this:
Runenprojekt Kiel … Database of runic inscriptions in older Fuþark
Danske Runeindskrifter … 'Runesproject Kopenhagen', gute Fotodokumentation
Nationalmuseets samlinger online: Runer … photos of mainly Danish origin
Sveriges Runinskrifter ... pdfs, is Swedish
My assumption about ships' libraries may have been in error. Chamisso, in "A voyage around the world...", wrote about his trip on the Rurik, on which in 1816 he found in Petropavlovsk not just books, but several volumes useful for his expedition. According to Chamisso, these books had been accumulating in Kamchatka "since the time of Bering" (early 1740s). ...