43

It was a divine judgement in cases where the evidence was inconclusive and previous attempts to resolve the case had failed. In some cases at least, it was only used after other attempts at a resolution had failed. We can't be certain why it was considered a valid outcome as there is insufficient evidence, but it is likely that the apparent verdict of a god ...


32

Peter Leeson from George Mason University has argued that medieval trial by ordeal worked because people believed that they worked. Thus, only the innocent were willing to undergo the ordeal. If this theory is correct, presumably the ordeal also separated the guilty and innocent via the same mechanism at the time of Hammurabi. I argue that medieval ...


19

Most probably, this starts with a an untrue premise: There are not so many laws about eye injury. How many "laws" are there in the Hammurabi Code? — 282. How many "laws" are there concerning consequences of eye injury? 2 One law for harm done by everyday accidents, brawls, malicious intent, one for professional medical health & safety. The "why" and ...


11

Because the circumstances are all different. In regards "blows and strikes": [116] addresses loss of life, not blows per se. [202] through [206] are all varying classes of assault under different circumstances. The rest of this answer should assist you in interpreting the Code. Let's look closely at the laws pertaining to loss of an eye, in context: 196....


8

First, it is important to understand that the economic system of ancient Mesopotamia was something much closer to a barter system than a modern market. Money did exist, but not in the fully standardized form we are used to today. Here is a relevant article which explains: Although Babylon had flourishing trading activity, Hammurabi did not come up with ...


8

The quotes given in Dr Killgrove's article includes just those parts of the tablets where the translation is reasonably certain. While these may convey the broad meaning (in this case that the letters were complaints against the copper merchant Ea-nasir), it can be confusing when the individual letters are looked at in detail. Details about the tablet you ...


8

From Wikipedia: In their oldest attested form, as used in the ancient Near and Middle East of the 8th century BCE onwards, bullae were hollow ball-like clay envelopes that contained other smaller tokens that identified the quantity and types of goods being recorded. In this form, bullae represent one of the earliest forms of specialization in the ancient ...


5

I have found full list of proto-cuneiform signs (very large file [93 MB]), with very detailed glyphs together with their meanings sadly meanings seems to be all missing. Though there is no author information. Also as you suggested; A. Falkenstein, Archaische Texte aus Uruk (Archaische Texte aus Uruk 1; Berlin-Leipzig 1936) from Cuneiform Digital ...


3

The Wikipedia article on the Buyid dynasty is clear about the fact that the Buyids conquered the Abbasids and made them into a vassal state. So they did not "emerge as allies", but rather as ememies. At the same time however, the Buyid did depend on the Abbasid to rule, particularly in Baghdad. Here is a relevant footnote from an article which spells that ...


1

This is probably not a very good answer, although perhaps it provides some context. There is evidence that the Indus valley people migrated towards Sumer, and conducted trade with Oman and the present day orient, by boat, from 3000BC until later civilizations used the same trade route in 350BC. The details of Indus valley chronology and trade are ...


1

The Indus Valley civilization started declining around 1700 BCE. The Bronze Age transitioned into the Iron age also referred to as PGW(Painted Greyware)-Iron age, somewhere around 1000-1100 BCE (Iron was discovered in burial sites near Gandhara). There was no abrupt collapse of the bronze age. . The conventional viewpoint is that at this stage that mixing ...


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