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34

On the topic of the Aztecs, an intriguing book on this subject is Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control, by Ross Hassig. The Aztecs were an extremely war-like civilization, that were constantly attacking and subjugating their neighbors. Interestingly, though, their style of warfare was quite different from what we are familiar with from ...


31

Arthur Zimmerman appears to have been trying to avoid being blamed by the German press and politicians for bringing the USA into the war. Placing your personal interests ahead of those of your country when you're a government minister is rarely a good idea. He said: ... despite the submarine offensive, he had hoped that the USA would remain neutral. His ...


29

When Mexico won its independence in 1821, it covered an area from Central America northward to California, Utah, and Texas. In fact, Mexico in 1835 was just about as large as the United States at the time. To help develop parts of this vast territory, the Mexican government invited settlers from the United States to take up lands in Texas. Mexican leaders ...


28

It's unclear if you mean whether it was (1) a ruse by Wilson against the American public, or (2) Germany against the USA, or (3) Germany against Mexico, or (4) British against USA? As far as being a ruse by Wilson (e.g. he made up the telegram to present to Congress), this can likely be discounted since there is documentary evidence - in 2005, an original ...


16

If you are talking about the Omelc/Aztec/Maya, at war with the Cree or Inuits, I very much doubt this ever happened, as, 1) They had no quarrel, and so, no reason to go to war. 2) They had no way of marching across the USA, according to my Google Earth measurements, the distance from New York/New Jersey to Honduras, is 4,000 km. An average human can walk 5 ...


15

After Mexican independence much of northern Mexico, infact most of many parts of Mexico, were devastated and sparsly populated. These northern areas were hard to defend against both indian incursions and anglo land poaching. Mexico had a just fear that the US was eyeing their northern states. Mexico lacked the people, resources, and equipment to settle ...


12

Did it, after all, arrive in Spain and deliver its treasure to King Charles? Yes, but... It wasn't exactly a treasure ship. Not like the treasure ships that would come later. It was more of a down-payment-on-a-bribe ship. The story the OP and their video tells got a little smashed together and mixed up sending a ship back to Spain with scuttling his ships....


10

President Wilson revealed the existence of the telegram to the press on 28 February 1917. The press published the story the next day 1 March 1917 (and remember that Berlin is 6 hours ahead of Washington time). The German embassy in Washington would have had to send a telegram to Germany to inform them that the contents of what we now call "The Zimmermann ...


9

For contact between the inhabitants of present-day United States and present-day Mexico, you can also see the Wikipedia article on Chichimeca, the commonly used name for the peoples that lived to the north of the Aztecs. It appears not much is known about them. The map posted in another answer is beautiful and very informative, but we should remember that ...


9

"California" (at the time), consisted of three distinct regions: 1) A decidedly "Anglo" dominated area around the then-capital at Sonoma (modern northern California). 2) A "mixed" Anglo and Spanish-speaking area in the center (around Los Angeles), 3) A purely Spanish-speaking area in the south (the modern Baja California and Baja California Sur. During ...


8

The ship was the SS Ypiranga, which was indeed a German ship (although it was at that point a cargo-steamer, not yet a passenger liner). Díaz departed from the port of Veracruz on May 31st, 1911 bound for the French port of Le Havre with a stop Havana. The event was reported in the June 1st edition of the New York Times: VERA CRUZ, May 31. -- Ex-President ...


8

Did any relevant Mexican authority ever acknowledge the secession of Texas before the start of the Mexican-American War? No. Small clashes arose between the two countries for several years afterward. The war between Texas and Mexico did not truly come to an end until the Mexican-American War of 1846. A theory that paints the Mexican-American War as a ...


8

Germany sent, or tried to send the "Zimmerman telegram" to a Mexican government that basically didn't exist. Americans initially thought it was a "ruse" by the Allies until Germany's Arthur Zimmerman admitted to sending the telegram, as pointed out by one of the posters. The reason was that Mexico was in throes of a "free for all" civil war at the time, ...


8

It was horribly too far away. One thing is stablishing some minor settlements and trade activities, and a very different one is conducting a military expedition. Siberia was not developed to support such an effort locally, and most of the southern coastline of what is now the Russian Far East was part of China (which ceded it to Russia as part of the ...


8

Your question appears to be based upon a false assumption: As far back as 1590, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum showed that the northern part of the New World was known as "America Mexicana" (Mexican America), as México City was the seat for the New Spain viceroyalty. New Spain is mistaken as the old name for México, rather than the name of a large of expanse ...


7

Technically, the Hohokam were culturally and ethnically an outpost of Mesoamerican civilization in what is now the United States. Though they peacefully colonized and settled the area, there is some evidence that they engaged in warfare with the pastoralist Apache and Navajo when those cultures migrated into the area near the end of the Hohokam Classical Era,...


7

According to pg 317 of the Book California Through Russian Eyes, by James R Gibson, ...while hunting sea otters from the Ilmena, he either jumped ship or was captured by a Spanish patrol. The Ilmena is listed as 'purchased from the Americans' on the Russia-America Company wiki page. So there's your ship name, and yes he was employed in the fur trade.


7

David Weber in The Mexican Frontier (1982) suggested that the best English-language source on the Mexican conflict with northern tribes is a 1963-1972 series of articles by Ralph A. Smith in the journals Hispanic American Historical Review, Arizona and the West, and Arizoniana. For a Spanish-language source Weber liked Carlos J. Sierra's book Los indios de ...


6

Piecing together some thin threads, I can argue that someone was naturalized prior to that date. All colonists were expected to become naturalized Mexican citizens, and they were also supposed to follow the state religion. Wikipedia:Mexican_Texans Further down in the same article: (emphasis added) Approximately 3420 land grant applications were ...


6

To make the answer short not very well. Their treatment under the ranchos was pretty much the same as their treatment under the Missions. The articles mentioned they were paid in goods and alcohol, though some may have been paid in cash or script, I guess it would depend on the Ranchero. "A California rancho might employ as few as twenty or as many as ...


6

SHORT ANSWER Physical barriers along the US-Mexico border have been erected at various points since at least 1918. Most of these, though, were short and often not maintained. The first major proposal to put up a barrier along several areas of the border was in the late 1970s during the Carter administration, the controversial Tortilla Curtain, but the ...


6

Bernal Díaz del Castillo obliquely compared spears of the Chinantec people to pikes (at least in translation -- I didn't check the Spanish original) and remarked that they were longer than the Castilian equivalent. Several Mesoamerican groups used spears. Here are Aztec warriors wielding tepoztopilli:


5

From what I gathered, without knowing which book it was you were reading, both towns appear to have been two mining centers, established by the mining company El Boleo, and they must have just taken their names from existing landmarks (mountains or streams – there's a Purgatorio stream near Santa Rosalía, in the center of that mining area). In any case, ...


5

I can only find figures excluding Indians. According to Weber's The Mexican Frontier, California had 7,300 in 1845, and New Mexico had 65,000 in 1846. Texas in 1846, according to the Texas State Historical Association, had 125,000 people.


5

In an article on the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, PBS offers the following estimate: At the time of the treaty, approximately 80,000 Mexicans lived in the ceded territory, which comprised only about 4 percent of Mexico’s population. PBS


5

I'm hardly a Mexican legal expert. However, the Constitutional article you state (the first can be ignored, as that Constitution isn't in effect any more) seems to say that your right to keep guns in your own home can only be restricted by Federal authorities (not state or local authorities). However, there's no limit placed on how restrictive the Federal ...


5

Yes. In California Through Russian Eyes, 1806–1848, on page 158, there is a discussion of a celebration being held in honor of the Tsar's birthday. Entertainment in the form of dancing and singing caused mention of two young girls 'sweet voices'. One of the girls who 'distinguished herself' is listed as Dona Josefa de Sola. The footnote credits her as 'The ...


5

Mexico probably encouraged Anglo settlement in Texas for the same reason that Spain had done so earlier: they couldn't get anyone else to go. Weber says in "The Spanish Frontier in North America" (Yale, 1992): Eight years after the king issued his order, the first and last contingent of government-sponsored immigrants from the Canary Islands reached ...


5

The most reliable record is to be gained by cross-examining all the primary sources about this event and seeing where they are in unanimous agreement. This is the case when interpreting Crockett's fate at the Alamo. The exact details of his death seem to be in dispute in a heated argument that challenges the legitimacy of several eyewitness accounts, most ...


5

It looks like around 7-8 weeks ship time. See update below. (Inserted new info at top, ahead of the background info on the avisos ships and routes.) --- UPDATE --- Finally found actual info on the travel time for the avisos. This book concerning the HMS Centurion actually lists the transit time for the avisos San Lorenzo as 41 days. This put the ship at ...


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