27

Short Answer Saladin is believed to have spoken Kurdish, Turkish and Arabic. When communicating with crusaders, he needed an interpreter unless he was speaking to a crusader who knew Arabic (and there were certainly some who did - see examples below). I can find no evidence that he was conversant in any European language, though that does not mean to say ...


16

In that era, 300 pounds weighs 300 pounds, but it's a different pound. Your example of Robin Hood fixes the time period during the reign of King Richard about 1175, though we must remember this is a legend. This is just after the chaotic reign of King Stephen when the centralized minting of coins broke down. His successor, King Henry II, reintroduced the ...


11

Sort of, but he was not recognized by all the electors, some of whom elected another candidate. I can find no evidence that he was ever confirmed as bishop by the Holy See. In short, it's complicated... Canon James of Tonengo, previously chaplain to Pope Urban IV (d.1264), was one of two Bishops of Vercelli elected by different factions of electors: James ...


10

The book The Medieval Village, by George Coulton, has some information which seems to provide a basis for calculating an answer to your question. According to the first column of information, in the year 800 there were an estimated 100 Villages in this region. These contained an estimated 20,000 individuals, so we can calculate your average village size of ...


5

Although the title of your question refers specifically to the 12th century, your question asks for the High Middle Ages which is a longer period. As such, I will focus on the High Middle Ages of France. There are numerous examples of how succession might work during that time period thanks to the multitude of succession crises of France and Burgundy. ...


4

Beverley Nank, who is a curator at the British Museum, says that snails in manuscripts were drawn to symbolize cowardice. She even analyzed the manuscript images posted above. Nenk said, 'snails were often depicted in the margins of medieval illuminated manuscripts, thought to symbolise cowardice. That could mean it is “a satirical reference to cowardly or ...


2

Snopes According to Snopes both clinking glasses to ward off evil spirits, and to test for poison in the spirits, is false. Snopes Many explanations have been advanced to explain our custom of clinking glasses when participating in toasts. One is that early Europeans felt the sound helped to drive off evil spirits. Another holds that by clanking the glasses ...


2

Italian Wikipedia states Martino Avogadro di Quaregna † ( 1244 - deceased July 1268 ) Vacant See (1268-1273) Aimone di Challant † (21 December 1273 - 19 June 1303 died) But: The arch-diocese itself lists as bishop: Aimone di Challant (1268 – 19 giugno 1305)


2

Simple answer: no. The premise of the question is flawed, probably in more than just one way. Danes did not sack Hamburg in 983, and Hamburg most probably wasn't destroyed in 983 at all by anyone. Short answer 880 third destruction of Hamburg, by Norman and Slavic raiders, led by Eric the Child 915 fourth destruction of Hamburg, by Danes and Slavs 1012 ...


1

The Events of 983 It appears likely that Hamburg was indeed burned and ravaged in 983 AD, but apparently not by the Danes, but by Slavic forces fighting a holy war against Christianity, according to the Medieval Elbe. The Medieval Elbe III 18: In those times, the church of Zeitz was captured and wasted by an army of Bohemians under the leadership of Dedi. ...


1

This is seventeenth century rather than medieval but I don't know that that would make much difference in terms of medical technology. Samuel Rutherford's second wife Jean Macmath was born before the end of February 1611 and had a child baptised in March 1656. Assuming minimal interval between birth and baptism (which was normal), she was at least 45 when ...


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