75

Most people at the time did not think the Roman Empire had fallen -- it's only from five hundred or a thousand years later that we can conclude that it did. Both points of view are reasonable. What happened around 476 is that the Western part of the Roman Empire was lost to central control. This was not the first time it had happened -- consider the Gallic ...


6

Deformed arms? No - the skeletal changes are in the back and shoulders, not the arms, and I'm not comfortable with the term "deformed". That said, were there similar changes to the skeletons of longbow archers and horse archers? Probably. The following quote applies to Hungarian horse archers, using similar bows and suggests that skeletal changes would ...


5

SHORT ANSWER: The Roman Empire had many different avatars or incarnations, and thus it fell on many different dates. LONG ANSWER: I do not count the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, or the Austrian Empire as any sort of continuation of the Roman Empire. ...


5

Terminological precision: Celibate = unmarried (cælebs = single, unmarried) The Church has allowed married men to become priests. St. Peter, for example, was married. Continent = not having sexual relations The Church has always required all (married or celibate) clerics to be 100% continent and never allowed priests to marry after their ordinations. ...


5

Looking at late 11th century England, the Domesday Book commissioned in 1085-6 by William I records a division: of England into Counties; Counties were the primary structural element of Domesday Book. There were 31 counties in Great Domesday. of Counties into Fiefs; ..., a fief being the conventional term for the manors held directly from the Crown ...


4

SHORT ANSWER: No. LONG ANSWER: Every manor in Catholic and Latin medieval Europe had a manor house of some sort, except during intervals, possibly long intervals, between a manor house being destroyed and a replacement being built. If someone was the lord of two or more manors, obviously he could not live in two or more manor houses at the same time. ...


4

You are right. This can be a heated question, as is evident from comments, upvotes, downvotes, and votes to close. TL;DR There is no consensus among historians, so much is sure. There was a crisis in the Western part of the Roman Empire, connected to the collapse of the central authority there, but obvious in demographics, economic and political ...


3

It is a very complex question. Real short answer: In the medieval feudal system in continental Europe the owner of a manor was a feudal lord. The feudal ruler of an ancient Roman city state or its equivalent in a non Roman region was a count. The feudal ruler of a large area was a Duke. Ideally all lords were vassals of their count, all counts were ...


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