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SHORT ANSWER Yes, there were some restrictions on movement during the period 1347 - 51 but mostly (with a few exceptions such as some city states and Poland) they were haphazard and depended on local or personal initiatives and / or religion rather than national governments. Invariably, the measures that were taken were too little, too late. Further, ...


11

Based on the accepted answer linked below, Poland did: In addition to Poland's relatively sparse population, a key factor is that King Casimir the Great wisely quarantined the Polish borders. By holding the plague off at the borders, the disease's impact on Poland was softened. Sources: middle ages - Why was Poland spared from the Black Death? - History ...


6

In Old English (Anglo Saxon), a bönder or bönda was a freeman (Norse bóndi / bóandi). However, there were various degrees of "freeman". In Anglo Saxon England, the lowest of these classes was called a ceorl, and above them was a theign. In Sweden, the equivalent grades of freemen were simply bönder and odalbönder, defined under the "odal" concept. ...


5

In addition to Lars Bosteen's answer, the Decameron also says that Florence denied entry to people who were visibly ill: In Florence, despite all that human wisdom and forethought could devise to avert it, as the cleansing of the city from many impurities by officials appointed for the purpose, the refusal of entrance to all sick folk, and the ...


3

I believe Heathguard is a related to the common surname name "Heyward". The "W" and "G" sounds are related between German and French: "Ward" => "Guard" just like "William" => "Guillaume" "Hey" is related to "hedge". Hedges were used to separate tracts of farmland. "heather" is also a type of hedge. A "Heyward" is someone who guards property lines. ...


1

I would like to read more about what it actually mean to the people at that time. This link may be useful to you: Quelle est la signification du mot « Paratge » ? It quotes a dozen definitions of the word, and a half-dozen examples, and five paragraphs of introduction. According to the introduction it's used to mean "noble birth", "moral virtue", and "...


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