38

This is from the so called Crusader Bible: Image icon MS M.638, fol. 11v An Execution, Joshua's Final Commands, Joshua's Passing Old Testament Miniatures with Latin, Persian, and Judeo-Persian inscriptions Paris, France ca. 1244–1254 390 x 300 mm Purchased by J.P. Morgan (1867–1943) in 1916 MS M.638, fol. 11v See more information » ...


26

Others (and perhaps myself) will no doubt expand, but the general outline was as follows: Replace the nascent hierarchical feudal system of Anglo-Saxon England (and similar to contemporary French and German feudal systems) with an Anglo-Norman flat feudal system where every baron swears an oath of fealty directly to the Monarch, and only knights swear ...


11

Apparently the illustration is from the Morgan Bible, depicting the execution by Joshua of the Amorite kings. For biblical context, see Joshua 10-11. According to Wikipedia, "The prevailing scholarly view is that the book of Joshua is not a factual account of historical events."


11

Ell In England, the ell was usually 45 in (1.143 m), or a yard and a quarter. It was mainly used in the tailoring business but is now obsolete. Although the exact length was never defined in English law, standards were kept; the brass ell examined at the Exchequer by Graham in the 1740s had been in use "since the time of Queen Elizabeth". Selvedge A ...


11

I'm not sure why @Spencer didn't post this as an answer, but I believe he is correct in his comment from Apr in 2018 (as is the more recent (June 2018) limited response from @Rob Crawford): There is another snippet from the Madrid Skylitzes showing this same thing on land, on top of a hill, while the boat rows away, depicing Thomas the Slav fleeing to ...


9

If I'm going to address this in context, the general point is that all we have to go by is written records, and in eras of low literacy, that means all we get is the perspective of the few literate people. The early Middle Ages (aka: "Dark Ages") were definitely a period of low literacy in Europe, and in this case the few people who had the ability and ...


8

Typically, a significant minority of the monks were priests. But each order would have its own rules about the movement of its members. The more strict orders would not accept that one of his priests would serve the local village parish - e.g. the Trappists don't. Even the most strict orders, such as the Trappists (see the movie Into Great Silence, ...


6

An excellent example is Lollardy in England. Today many people read the Lollards through a lens of modern left wing movements. Ironically this is a useful reading: the Lollards were educated intermediaries who were incensed with moral outrages and tried to harness a movement of ordinary working people for their own benefits. We know more about the Lollards ...


5

You won't get a clear definition, as this changes from century to century, from area to area, and also in the eye of the beholder. Village priests were often poor, illiterate or barely literate, and clearly not an elite unless compared to rest of the village. Same for monks and nuns. Priests in more important churches, bishops, and priests who also served ...


3

As i remember, there are jesters & fools in the triumphal procession of Maximilian I, a paper procession printed by the Emperor as dynastic and personal propaganda. The woodcuts have often be reproduced, as in my copy of The Triumph of Maximilian I: 137 woodcuts by Hans Burgkemair and Others, Stanley Applebaum, Dover Press, NY, 1964. On page 6 of the ...


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