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Short Answer Saladin is believed to have spoken Kurdish, Turkish and Arabic. When communicating with crusaders, he needed an interpreter unless he was speaking to a crusader who knew Arabic (and there were certainly some who did - see examples below). I can find no evidence that he was conversant in any European language, though that does not mean to say ...


15

You are quite correct that the linguistics of the situation shows such association is nonsense. The two writers in question appear to have both been primarily active in the 1800's. Obviously, the state of the art in Historical analysis has advanced some in the intervening 2 centuries. In particular, it wasn't until the late 19th Century that Indo-European ...


9

Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, the Trucial States (modern UAE) and Oman were all protected by treaties with Great Britain. Yemen proper was never claimed for the reasons Pieter explained above. That said, Ibn Saud did manage to take away about 2/3rds of the territory claimed by Kuwait, and this was recognized by Great Britain as part of the Uqayr Protocols (1922). ...


3

Putting together some of the sources provided in the comments: There were indeed four Soviet diplomats abducted in Beirut in 1985. One was shot and the other three were freed about a month later. About two months after the three other diplomats were freed, the story re. the family member of one of the kidnappers surfaced. So the story is quite old, which of ...


3

As the comments say you should separate Arab countries from local Palestinians. We also need to decide on a date, since again like the comments mention a conflict existed between Jews and local Palestinians long before that. The end of the British Mandate in Palestine on 14 May 1948 marks the beginning of modern independent Israel. Benny Morris and a group ...


1

Would it not make more sense strategically to execute them to prevent any legitimate successors from claiming the throne and seeking vengeance ? Perhaps... But it also makes psychological sense to brutally humiliate one's adversaries. Please note the various parallels between the following biblical passages: Judges 1:6-7 Adonibezek fled; and they pursued ...


1

Imperialism mainly. Egypt's attempt under Mehmet Ali was crushed by Britain and France, and the Ottoman Empire was saddled with 'free trade' treaties and concessions that made even the first stages of industrialization impossible. Other Arab regions were either colonized early on (e.g. Algeria and Tunisia) or were too impoverished and sparsely-populated (e....


1

How about a little different angle: local culture and tradition of "digging". While technically true that a building can stand for thousands of years, even if they do, generally they do in an unrecognizable form. Without a conscious effort to find, many of these buildings are lost. Most native American cities are disappeared under the jungle in a ...


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