54

As DevSolar mentioned in his comment, this really depends on how you define 'major', but here are several case of migrants moving from the New to the Old World. From the Caribbean to Europe According the (British) National Archives, between 1948 and 1970, nearly half a million people left their homes in the West Indies to live in Britain There were ...


49

Yes, there has been. As this infographic shows, there has been a back-migration of the DNA haplogroups C1a and A2a from North America (well, Beringia...) back into Asia. The infographic is sourced as Tamm E, Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu M, Smith DG, et al. (2007) Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders. PLoS ONE 2(9): e829. doi:10....


38

However, considering there was little to no knowledge of the new world I wonder why would the tribes risk to travel to far . . . it seems unreasonable [humans would] risk it to migrate towards the north in search for a place that may or may not exist In a general sense, this is not particularly remarkable. All humans evolved in Africa, and from there we ...


24

In addition to Lars Bosteen's answer about modern migration, several hundred thousand South American people have migrated to Spain in the last decades, and Brazilians have became the largest group of foreigners in Portugal. Other European countries with fewer ties and common background with America seem to host smaller populations. Furthermore, if the "...


13

Many prominent men of science in the 19th century believed that the Indians' ancestors had always been in America. This belief draws on the theory of polygenism--that the several races had independent origins as separate species. "Scientific" polygenism also had a religious aspect called "Pre-Adamism." Polygenists/Pre-Adamists didn't need to posit ancient ...


11

Early post-contact beliefs contained an unhealthy dose of myths and legends, e.g. Atlantis or that Native Americans descended from the lost tribes of Israel. These were displaced as rationalism developed, but suspicion that the Old World populated the Americas grew over time (for the alternate view, that the Natives had always been in the New World, see @...


10

Yes, your suspicion is correct. Once man had boats (no later than 40,000 years ago) and the ability to live in the arctic, the island chains strung across the Bering Straight could not have been a significant barrier. There are native peoples who traverse it regularly today using native methods. As for evidence, archeologically we know about the Thule ...


9

It very much depended on the country. You are right that in Western Europe passports and visas were not required until the end of 19s century. But in the Russian empire, and its predecessor the Great Duchy of Moscow, passport or similar documents required since the times immemorial. Certainly they were required in XVI century. Western travelers (ambassadors!)...


9

Horses evolved on the North American landmass, emigrated across the Bering land bridge, then went extinct in the Americas.


7

Wikipedia has an article called List of countries and islands by first human settlement. The latest by continuous habitation is Crozet Islands, which was discovered in 1772 but was only intermittently inhabited (by sealers) until 1963 with the establishment of the Alfred Faure research station. However it is part of France, which is obviously much older. ...


7

Whether it was 2 years or 200 years, the academic consensus was that it was incredibly fast. I would likely lean more toward the longer time-frame, as the archaeological record is more consistent with a "slower" migration. Stuart Fiedel gives the mainstream account of a migration that took around 100-150 years. The Thule culture, which is ancestral to ...


7

Polynesian navigators made good use of ocean winds and currents. When following the Indian Ocean Gyre, the most logical way to arrive to Madagascar is from the East: If you look up the South Pacific Gyre, you'll notice a similar pathway to New Zealand from the Polynesian triangle. Also, on the topic of the question mark to the right side of your map, the ...


6

I recently read a book, Across Atlantic Ice: The Origin of America's Clovis Culture that purports to challenge the foot traffic in two ways - first that ancient peoples were far more handy on boats than current thought, so a foot path isn't needed for them to spread, and second that evidence for passage from the Bering area is fairly thin in the period where ...


6

There were many people fleeing the Nazis in the 1930s, a lot of them Jewish. Mostly these people were welcomed by Britain. However what greatly complicated their assimilation into British society was that a lot of them were German speakers. Passports did not record people's religion, merely their nationality. So for official purposes, fleeing Jews from ...


6

The question seems to assume the existence of immigration controls, which are a fairly modern invention. The first US law restricting (voluntary) immigration in any significant way wasn't passed until 1875*. Prior to that, the general process in the Americas was to control naturalization (citizenship), but not immigration. Of course anyone wanting to live ...


5

No, they didn't. There is no evidence of human occupation in Iceland before Irish monks and later the Vikings settled there. Eskimo technology wasn't bad at all, kayaks are pretty nifty boats. But not suitable for migration.


5

When did government authorities start to enforce generic limitations on who could settle in the area under their control? The Romans attempted to do this when they settled foederati, for example the Goths of various descriptions, within the boundaries of the Empire in defined areas. These were done as a series of one-offs. Enforcement was through the "I've ...


5

I think you are right that a closer look at the makeup of the 33-member Duquesne Nazi Spy Ring might be instructive here. While every member of the ring had pre-existing ties to foreign countries*, not one of them came to the USA as a refugee from Germany. Several in fact didn't come from Germany at all. The ringleader was South African. There were in fact ...


5

As you mentioned, their linguistic relation to Kurdish does imply a shared history at some time in the past. As near as I can piece together from various sources online, the split may have happened as early as 200AD though, which in terms of languages (and history) is quite a long time indeed. They have an oral tradition of descent from Hamza, an uncle of ...


4

First off, it really shouldn't shock anyone that some ancient mummies in the Tarim Basin show European-esque features. That is the far, far western extreme of what is now considered China. Until as late as the middle ages (6-8 AD) an Indo-European language was spoken there. It really shouldn't be surprising that an area whose culture left behind Indo-...


4

The most sophisticated alternative theory is perhaps that of Florentino Ameghino who postulated an autochthonous evolution of species based on skeletal anthropology and diggings according to the following chart: German anthropologists, led by Hermann Burmeister, opposed this theory. Burmeister proposed a catastrophe theory of human evolution, similar to ...


4

I've also been researching my family history, and my family seems to be another one with "itchy feet". I've traced a few lines back to the civil war, and - although the distances involved seem to be getting smaller the further back I get - there is still no sign of them settling in one place yet. One of the best recent books that I have seen on the subject ...


3

Well, they did, but not before they were discovered by europeans. Some inuits have moved to Denmark since Denmark had Greenland under their jurisdiction.


3

Since some of my ancestors emigrated from the Holy Roman Empire to the British colonies in America in the 18th Century, I know there were some bureaucratic procedures. Records in the European communities they left often record that the lowlier emigrants were released from their former condition of serfdom, which was fairly easy by the 18th century, before ...


3

In 1492, the Ottoman Empire's Bayezid II sneered at Spain's Ferdinand of Aragon: "you call him a wise ruler, he who has impoverished his own country and enriched mine," with the expulsion of Jews and Moors. Bayezid sent warships to Spain to pick them up and take them to his lands, forcing his governors to accept them on pain of death. They contributed ...


3

Your question is an interesting one, but difficult to ascertain. It is estimated that around 8% of the Spanish population are descended from nobility, but this does not mean that they all held titles like those of Duke or Marquis; for a large percentage of nobility in regions like Pais Vasco, Navarra and Cantabria were untitled nobility or Hidalgos (the ...


3

Update - February 21, 2017: A new study ... Genetic data suggest that modern European ancestry represents a mosaic of ancestral contributions from multiple waves of prehistoric migration events. Recent studies of genomic variation in prehistoric human remains have demonstrated that two mass migration events are particularly important to understanding ...


3

No, there isn't. What you have here is a coincidence. There are only so many sounds that the human voice finds easy to use in language, so similar names come up in different language groups. Language groups also reveal the lack of connection between the two "Kush" groups. The Kingdom of Kush was Nubian, speaking Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan languages. The ...


2

Based on archeological evidence, the expansion of Indo-Europeans into Europe went hand-in-hand with the introduction of Neolithic techniques. In plain English, the Indo-Europeans were the area's first farmers. The important thing to realize about the introduction of farming is that it supports orders of magnitude larger population than does hunting and ...


2

When the earlier Brahmins (Namboodris) migrated to Kerala late in the first millenium, CE, they "acted as priests, counsellors, and advisers to local kings." In other words, they got to perform their "high status" roles when such opportunities were limited elsewhere. And in so doing, they introduced the caste system where none existed before. The Keraal ...


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