83

I'm a horse archer; we use instinctive archery – there are no range finders, just a bow, a string an arrow and an archer. After a few thousand shots at various ranges, your body just knows how to aim – I'm not even conscious of doing it. Eventually you're able to hit a target from the back of galloping horse reliably (I'm not saying I'm there yet, but I'm ...


43

They mostly didn't care. In combat, the purpose of an archer was not to land aimed shots on specific targets. It was to put large amounts of pointy wood-and-steel in the air, in the general direction of a block of enemy troops. When the block of enemy troops is tens of metres deep and hundreds of metres wide, aiming is largely irrelevant. For long range ...


15

It meant that at least one army, the first, but also quite probably the second, and maybe even endangering the severely weakened third army, faced the danger of encirclement and total defeat. Supply lines were already strained heavily, French resistance became more staunch, the 6th French army guarding Paris more or less a surprise, and the third army being ...


12

The 208th (SP) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery is listed on the Order of Battle for the 59 AGRA (Army Group Royal Artillery) as of May 18, 1945. It's HQ staff departed Liverpool on 28 March, 1945, arriving in Bombay 20 April. The 208th SP does not appear to have been part of 59 AGRA during the latter's post-D-Day role in N.W. Europe. The 130 (Lowland) Field ...


8

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the "straw that broke the camel's back." Together with the French, they had 191 battalions at the critical point of the fighting versus 128 for the Germans, with the BEF providing most of the difference. In the main drive, the Germans were able to contain the French 6th Army to the east, while the BEF on the west ...


6

"Most" officers in the Navy (and Army and Marines) get two promotions if they stay long enough. In the Navy, that would be from Ensign (ENS.) to Lieutenant Junior grade (LTJG.) and then to Lieutenant (LT - the equivalent of an Army or Air Force Captain). That's because the first two officer ranks are basically "trainee" positions, and the last one mentioned ...


5

Ranging wouldn't have been as important as it is today. The importance of ranging comes from the "first shot" advantage - being able to drop your projectiles onto your chosen target first time accurately (whether that is from a sniper rifle or an artillery piece) is important in modern warfare because most conflicts are decided by who gets the first hit in ...


4

With just a little practice, most people can learn to judge distance fairly accurately. Even in modern times, use of a rangefinder is situational. In hunting with a modern sight, it is important to know the range of a shot. Yet it can also be inconvenient to break out and use an electronic rangefinder. 3D shoots are a type of archery contest intended to ...


2

I think your questions are impossible to answer with any precision, except possibly for the first point. Especially at the end of the war, things got confused and desperate. A number of services proliferated which were not quite Wehrmacht but certainly fighting, like the Volkssturm (kids and cripples with any weapon at hand, from ancient to most modern), ...


2

Fortunately you can use recent history to answer your question. Until very recently, Bradley fighting vehicles (and others) did not have a range finders. Range were based upon the estimation of the commander and gunner. Modern day snipers are trained to judge range without the use of electronics. I'd dispute that range estimation was not important in ...


2

Did you already read the book "Der HAPAG Passagier-Dampfer "Hansa"" by Ulf-Normann Neitzel? It describes every single day of the journey with details about where it was, when it waited, what the passengers ate etc. I briefly read the passages after Jan 31st (page 66-67) and it says the journey continued directly to Kiel, even though there were a lot of ...


1

Short answer: Yes, but one army did not have an edge over the entire century. A century, at that time, was nearly three generations. And militaries of the time could only serve for a small timeframe, so you could have up to ten different generations in one army for this century. Long answer: During the 18th century, in Europe, armies were in a very subtle ...


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