89

Ref. Das Boot showing a similar chain of command (although only with one additional person). The lieutenant commander gives orders to the watch officer, who passes them below deck. The commander could pass them himself, but doesn't, for the same reasons the officers in your movie don't. Hunt for Red October has a similar scene, and they are really on a timer....


65

I think it comes down to a few basic factors: Early steam engines weren't very efficient or reliable. So it made sense to retain sails as a backup should the steam engine(s) breakdown or should the ship run out of fuel (especially on longer oceanic voyages were replenishment was uncertain). Wind-power is essentially free (once you've invested in the masts &...


58

That was the whole idea behind it. Not every bit of coastline is liable to invasion. Only on certain beaches troops could be landed. Steep cliffs and dangerous shallows didn't need protection. Place a very strong defense tower with a gun crew, and that single gun crew could keep a possible invasion force at bay. Don't forget that coastal defense has the ...


47

Postcards produced on Kodak Professional AZO paper had 'AZO stamp boxes' on the reverse. The style of these boxes varied over time. In this case, we have four triangles in the corners of the stamp box, two 'up' and two 'down'. This suggests that the card was produced in the date-range 1918-1930. The ship name on the reverse appears to be 'USS Marica'. A ...


35

It is, in fact, a twin-engined American P38 Lightning: That particular aircraft was shot down on 27 January 27 1944. The wreck is located in Lecques Bay at a depth of about 40 meters, about one kilometre west of Grenier Point. The wreck was discovered in November 1996, and identified as G15-LO (serial number 43-2545) flown by 2nd Lt. Harry Greenup of 49th ...


31

Operation Flipper, in November 1941 was a British special forces operation aimed at killing or capturing Erwin Rommel. The intention was to disrupt the German Command and Control infrastructure before the start of Operation Crusader, which was intended to relieve the siege of Tobruk. It was felt that Rommel was such a pivotal figure for the German army ...


30

No, firing trials of pre-WW1 British Dreadnoughts didn't actually involve firing at them. The HMS Hero trial mentioned in the Wikipedia article was part of a series of live firing trials carried out by the Royal Navy at the beginning of the 20th century. The target vessels were unmanned, and included: HMS Belleisle (launched 1876) HMS Hero (launched 1885) ...


30

You can't completely replace sail with coal until you are 100% sure that you are going to have access to coal everywhere you need to go. This is basically an extension of Steve Bird's #1 and #2. It's beyond the economics and into the availability. Do you have reliably supplied coaling stations all the way to, say, Australia? If it's a military operation, ...


29

This would appear to be the badge of the No. 300 Polish Bomber Squadron which fought alongside the Royal Air Force and operated from airfields in the United Kingdom. Above: Badge with colour. Source: Wikipedia. Below, badge (no colouring) on memorial plaque. Source: Aircrew Remembered The CCC is 300 in Roman numerals and the badge combines the ...


29

The short answer (unfortunately but unsurprisingly) is that we can't be sure. However, the currently most accepted theory would appear to be that the walls were for flood control, but there are other views and there is no clear consensus. The tower, on the other hand, has been associated with the summer solstice, among other things. THE WALLS The most ...


29

Clarity for the soldiers. Imagine you are a a rifleman standing or crouching somewhere during the battle. The colonel says in your hearing "hold this position." The captain says "first platoon, face left." The lieutenant says "third section, infantry on the slope, five rounds rapid, then fall back." What are you to do? Are you supposed to judge how falling ...


28

I think that the towers have to be considered in context. They were just part of the defenses, which included gunboats and inland fortifications, that were intended to repel a French invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. While modern historians can look back with hindsight and declare that the risk of a French invasion evaporated after Trafalgar, people on ...


25

An excerpt from this site http://www.vlib.us/medical/coll256.htm which describes itself as The following lecture on Sanitation and Hygiene is taken from the book, "Military Organisation and Administration" published by Major G. R. N. Collins, 4th. Battn. Canadians Instructor, Canadian Military School, in 1918. Major Collins was incapacitated from ...


24

this quote wasn't by ONE minister, it was by the whole French General Staff. page 3 The French military then dabbled briefly with the concept, creating two companies of paratroopers in 1936, but the experiment was dismissed by the French General Staff as “a circus act” and abolished before the war started. Piehl, Hauptmann. Ganze Männer. ...


24

The Roman conquest of Britain was undertaken in 43 CE by four legions: Legio II Augusta Legio IX Hispana Legio XIV Gemina Legio XX Valeria Victrix These same legions still comprised the garrison a dozen years later during the uprising by Boudicea Legio II Augusta remains in Britain until at least the 3rd century. Legio IX Hispana is sent to ...


22

Actually, no Roman legions appear to have been based in London. There was a fort in the north-west of the Roman city, built early in the second century, which could have held a garrison of about 1000 soldiers. However, this was the guard available to the governor of the province, rather than any particular legion. In fact, five legions are known to have ...


21

The operation to kill Bin Laden (2011) Yes, in recent memory the US Millitary started an operation specifically to take out Osama Bin Laden (it happened in 2011): "The Associated Press reported at the time two U.S. officials as stating the operation was "a kill-or-capture mission, since the U.S. doesn't kill unarmed people trying to surrender", but that "...


20

In Thunder on the Danube, John H. Gill notes on page 95: .... Many of the conscripts called up by the September 1808 decrees only reached their depots in November and December. When they joined their regiments in Germany and Italy [in March 1809], therefore, they had only been in uniform for three or four months. Two pages later (page 97) Gill then ...


20

Attempt to kill or capture Tito Operation Rösselsprung was a failed attempt by the Germans to capture or kill Marshal Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia on the 25th of May, 1944. The attempt to kill or capture Tito was led by Kurt Rybka with 500th SS Parachute Battalion. Tito, however, escaped from his cave headquarters after the German's first assault had ...


19

There are two questions here. The first question is about which Western air minister former Generaloberst Kurt Student was referring to in Chapter 32 of The Soviet Army. The second is whether that claim actually had any basis in fact. The first question is easy to answer. The claim originates in the book Ganze Männer by Hauptmann Piehl, and it is ...


17

Concepts of prosecuting a people’s gender war for matriarchy are modern (post-Enlightenment) fantasies or farces of the reversal of modern gender roles. Correspondingly feminism and rights are both also modern social relationships. Medieval women did seek to change their position in the social system. Amongst the second estate nunneries were not simply ...


17

I'm going to take a wild guess (since we don't have an actual picture of the ring yet), does the symbol resemble this? If so your family member may have been a member of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers. Note there are quite a few links in the reference section at the end of the Wikipedia article which may help you discover more about what your ...


16

Although there are a number of examples of prisoners being conscripted or allowed to volunteer for military service in other wars (see some examples here: Penal military unit), instances of this happening in World War I seem to be practically non-existent. The Military Services Act of 1916 does not appear to make any direct mention of prisoners. However, ...


16

With all due respect to Dr McAdam, I don't think that is correct. To give just one example, we have depictions of Anglo Saxon cavalry wearing helmets on Pictish stones like the one in the churchyard at Aberlemno Parish Church: Image source Wikimedia This particular stone is often referred to as Aberlemno II, and the battle scene depicted is generally ...


16

Based on the persistent comments by Hans, this new OP seems really keen to get an answer. So I will try. But I have a qualifier, and that is I'm not really that interested in rehashing political debates (which it could turn into, very quickly) on the Korean war. I'd rather delete this answer if that's the case. Let's start with a timeline (Jun 25, 1950 – ...


13

This actually came up in discussion when I was studying the archaeology of Roman Britain. In fact, as far as I'm aware, nobody knows for certain, but several archaeologists that I have spoken to suggested that they were meant to be three-wheeled plutei, which were screens intended to protect the attacking force besieging a city. The objects can be seen ...


13

Oops! You changed the title of the question. I originally answered that according to the original title of your question that never happened. To answer the title of your question, never. The phrase "The U.S. was occupied by foreign troops" means that the entire United States of America was occupied by foreign troops, not that some tiny part of the ...


13

In some countries between the wars there was a serious Civil-Defense movement. These were part-time civilian organisations aimed at supplementing ordinary firefighters and rescue workers in event of air raids. Britain also had an Auxiliary Fire Service As of actual military firefighters they were most important for branches of military other than the army. ...


13

The British bombardment of Copenhagen in September 1807, to deny to the French the possible use of the Danish fleet, seems to fit the bill. The impacts, explosions, and fires resulted in nearly 1,000 direct civilian casualties in a neutral country. It also delayed and nearly ended attempts to publish the first modern edition of Beowulf, due to scholarly ...


12

Seems as if the Copricapo head gear gives it away: black capercaillie feathers flowing from their wide-brimmed black hats. These feathers are also worn on Bersaglieri combat helmets. They once served a military purpose, acting as camouflage and as a sunshade for the marksman's shooting eye. But note that Italian Wikipedia firmly contradicts the species ...


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