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62

This happened in Roman Times judging by two notes in Slaves doing business: the role of Roman law in the economy of a Roman household by Richard Gamauf (2009): A Roman slave could hold property which, despite the fact that it belonged to his master, he was allowed to use as if it were his own. All acquisitions based on such a peculium were automatically ...


56

There are examples of slaves owning slaves from different historical periods and in different regions of the world, including: Ancient Near East Early Medieval Sunni Islam Late Medieval Mallorca 19th century Brazil and the West Indies Pre-colonial and colonial East and West Africa Ancient Near East During the Neo-Babylonian empire (at least) the answer ...


7

The following is just a first approximation, and focusses on the Tour de France. Most books I consulted either never mention any female in connection to the race and instead celebrate pure male heroism (and occasional misdeeds). Few do mention the podium girls vaguely, but then try to convince its readers that they were simply (as insinuated on another SE) '...


7

As one can deduce from the information provided in A Forgotten Mathematician, he was Dutch, confirming the Wikipedia claim. According to 1, Egbertus Rudolf van Kampen, known as Egbert, was born on 28 May 1908 in Berchem as the youngest in a family of three children. Egbert’s parents had moved from the Netherlands to Belgium a couple of years before, ...


5

Some time ago, a relative contacted the British Museum about this item and I have just received their feedback. The museum staff admit it had "several" of them puzzled so they contacted the Museum of the History of Science at Oxford. In sum, they came up with the following: The item pictured is known as a Ready Reckoner; these were used for "quickly pricing ...


4

More than once I have read the insult "slave of a slave", implying that someone had a very low status. Of course one cannot be certain that someone who used such an insult knew of actual slaves of slaves in their society, or merely imagined that someone could be so lowly they could be the slave of a slave. And I believe it was possible for unusually ...


3

Is there a time in US history when bicycle ridership was more prevalent than now? I haven't tried very hard to dig up hard data, but based on general trends, I suspect probably not. The Wikipedia article on "bike booms" is illuminating here. The 1890s was the first major wave of popularity for bicylcing, but at that it was almost exclusively done for ...


3

I have found the details in Soviet-Pakistan Relations and Post-Soviet Dynamics, 1947–92 by Hafeez Malik. The following is all from the above cited book. It started in ‘56 when a meeting was called to address the Afghan Problem. Though Pakistani Army Chief General Ayub Khan proposed some “strategic bombing and armoured thrust”, the Pakistani Ambassador to ...


3

I'm not sure that we're using the term heraldic device in a compatible manner. I use the term only to refer to images associated with a coat of arms; in this sense only the images on the shield are properly heraldic devices. I believe those are the two sacks of wheat on the arms of Wien-Grosjedlersdorf. I believe that the chain around the figure's neck ...


1

Eli Cohen is an excellent example. Debatable is Mata Hari. Debatable in the sense that she possibly/likely wasn't a spy. In all other aspects (culture, language, behaviour, etc.) she was fluent in Dutch, German, English and French.


1

Question: Were there any important spies in modern history who had to conceal their true nationality (or culture)? While not an especially important spy, and not involved in concealing one's "national" identity, I'm going to go with the story which inspired the play M. Butterfly. Where a man concealed his gender from someone he recruited for over a 20 ...


1

I will focus on the two parts of the question that have not been addressed yet: "What accounts/sources exist about these skirmishes? [...] What were the outcomes of the skirmishes?" Unfortunately the most substantial account I've found so far is a single paragraph in this article, "The Form of a North Borneo Nativistic Behavior": On December 17, 1941 ...


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