42 votes
Accepted

What prevented the Mongolian Empire from expanding into Europe?

Three factors. 1) The death of Ögedei Khan forced the hordes rampaging through Europe under Subutai to break off and return for the Kuraltai to choose a successor. Interrupting their hard-earned ...
33 votes
Accepted

How Did the Mongol Empire Get So Big?

There are a number of tactical and strategic reasons that the Mongols were successful. Core of strong leaders: Not only were the upper levels of military leadership strong, but the mid-level and ...
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33 votes
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Did the Golden Horde shoe their horses?

Short Answer Generally, no. Literary evidence mostly indicates that Mongol horses were unshod, at least with metal. However, some horses' hooves were shod with skins during the time of Genghis Khan, ...
30 votes
Accepted

Why was the standoff on the Ugra river the end of the Tatar-Mongol yoke in Russia?

It's precisely because Akhmat Khan retreated. The Mongolian yoke over Russia was underpinned by their ability to compel obedience (i.e. tribute) through the force of arms. Akhmat Khan's retreat ...
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30 votes
Accepted

Why did the Mongols destroy the library during the siege of Baghdad in 1258?

Short Answer An important reason was to destroy those Muslims who opposed the Mongols. This meant that their mosques and Islamic texts were also targeted, especially those of the Isma‘ilis, a Shi‘ite ...
29 votes

What are the primary sources for the Mongol sack of Baghdad?

The source containing the most detail is probably al-Ḥawādit̠ al-ğāmiʿa wa-l-tağārib al-nāfiʿa fī l-miʾa l-sābiʿa, a local history of Baghdad under Mongol rule. It was previously attributed to the ...
28 votes
Accepted

Why was the northern boundary of the Mongol empire set where it was?

There always is a trade-off when occupying someone else's territory: the resources you can extract plus any strategic value versus the resources you need to invest to maintain control. The wooded ...
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27 votes

Were the Islamic Caliphates (Umayyad and Abbasid) and the Mongol Empires truly as benevolent as they are portrayed?

If your textbook indeed says this, it is evidently biased. First of all, these things (the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, and European empires) belong to very different historical periods, and thus ...
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21 votes

Were the mongol army boots of 13th century lined with fur?

According to The Field Museum's Genghis Khan online exhibit... Man’s Boots Leather, 19th-20th century, National Museum of Mongolia These centuries-old leather boots are like those worn by warriors ...
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20 votes
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What does this source "IAA iii" mean? Which book?

This is explained — as it should be — as a frequently used abbreviation, on page 559, at the start of section called "Notes": Abbreviations of principal primary sources used in the notes: […...
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19 votes
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Who was the English Knight Templar holding command in the Mongol Army?

As interesting as this seems to be, there seems to be not much light available to shine onto this issue, except for the fact that such a man existed, although probably not really in command of that ...
  • 78.4k
17 votes
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How many soldiers did Ghengis Khan field?

In this period, the Mongols had a nominal strength of around 100,000 to 130,000. According to the Secret History of the Mongols, Ghengis Khan had an army of 105,000 strong by A.D. 1206. This number ...
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15 votes
Accepted

Why did Coloman of Slavonia leave Sajó bridge weakly defended against the Mongols?

According to the wikipedia article on the topic: The Mongol vanguard was killed nearly to a man, with Thomas of Split writing: "the Hungarians immediately charged into them and did battle. They cut ...
14 votes

Why didn't Gengis Khan invade India?

Genghis Khan mostly made a one-way trip. There were two main branches of the Silk Road (which wasn't an actual road, but rather an itinerary). One passed north of the Himalayas and one south (or by ...
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14 votes
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Why did the Mongols outlaw intermarriage between the Mongols and the Chinese and forbid the Chinese from learning the Mongolian language?

Under the Yuan Dynasty, although the Mongols were the most privileged group politically, they were not the dominant group demographically. In fact, Mongols were an extremely tiny minority in Yuan ...
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14 votes
Accepted

Did medieval Mongol horse archers have deformed arms like English bowmen?

Deformed arms? No - the skeletal changes are in the back and shoulders, not the arms, and I'm not comfortable with the term "deformed". That said, were there similar changes to the ...
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13 votes
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Why were the Mongolian armies able to to use greater percentages of archers than (Medieval) Europeans?

(from comment i turned it to answer) Nomadic people could use most of their male population as soldier, and they were full time on horse and using bows regularly. Also bows are good weapon for their ...
  • 1,207
13 votes

Why were fragments of the Mongol empire named after colors?

Colours are used in many cultures to denote directions. Chinese and Turkish colour/directions systems are very similar, which is probably not a co-incidence. This picture from a linguistics blog ...
12 votes
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Were there any naval engagements during the Mongol invasions of Japan?

Japan did have naval forces at the time, and they probably fought the Mongolians a few times. The samurai Takezaki Suenaga, a gokenin from Higo in central Kyūshū, was a veteran of both wars. To ...
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12 votes

Why were the Mongolian armies able to to use greater percentages of archers than (Medieval) Europeans?

The Mongolians originally lived as a tribal culture, and all of their sons would from birth be trained on the horse, bow, and other weapons. As the Khans turned them into a war machine they would ...
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12 votes

Why was the standoff on the Ugra river the end of the Tatar-Mongol yoke in Russia?

Its fairly simple: There was an arrangement where the Russian Rulers were paying tribute to the Golden Horde since the days of Genghis Khan. This is the international equivalent of "protection money". ...
  • 111k
12 votes

Who was the English Knight Templar holding command in the Mongol Army?

I've never seen the reference to the 'Templar' portion in particular, but an Englishman in the Mongol horde is something I've read. Unfortunately I can't find the book itself and simply have a review ...
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12 votes

Why did the Mongols destroy the library during the siege of Baghdad in 1258?

The Mongols were a sort of enlightened people, but they really didn't take lightly any threat to their rule. The Abassids didn't submit to the Mongol terms, during the late negotiation they apparently ...
  • 1,129
12 votes

Why were fragments of the Mongol empire named after colors?

Your talking about the Golden horde, or the Ulus of Jochi. It was divided between Jochi's sons, but it remained united. It stretched from Central Asia to Eastern Europe. These were the western ...
  • 3,242
11 votes

Were the Huns and Mongols at one point rivals?

When most people think of "Huns" and "Mongols", they are thinking of Atilla's empire of the mid 400's and Genghis Khan's Mongolian Empire of the 1200's. Since there's a good 800 years between them, ...
  • 111k
11 votes
Accepted

Why and how were the Mongols able to invade Russia successfully?

The mongols, when at their best, were unified and powerful. At the time, Russian city-states and kingships had little to no unity, and as the mongols were the top dogs of their time, they easily ...
10 votes
Accepted

What did the paper money of the Ilkhanate look like?

Gaykhatu Khan's paper money was visually similar to the contemporary Chinese notes. It was an oblong certificate, block printed on possibly papyrus or bark paper. The Islamic creed of Shahada was ...
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10 votes
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Why did the Mongol Empire disintegrate so rapidly after its peak?

The reason is that it was too large to be governed effectively. Already Genghis Khan understood this when he split it to uluses and assigned them to his sons. It was supposed that the Great Khan in ...
  • 37.5k
10 votes

Why are Turkish people and other Turkik people considered of Mongolic race if their language is not in the Mongolic language family?

There's no scientific definition of "race", so that part of the question is unanswerable. Linguists do try to classify languages though, since that can be done (mostly) objectively, based on ...
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