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37

Three factors. 1) The death of Ögedei Khan forced the hordes rampaging through Europe under Subutai to break off and return for the Kuraltai to choose a successor. Interrupting their hard-earned momentum, and giving the Europeans time to regroup, recover, reflect and prepare, was the deciding factor - also, Talabuga was not the general Subutai was. 2) ...


29

It's precisely because Akhmat Khan retreated. The Mongolian yoke over Russia was underpinned by their ability to compel obedience (i.e. tribute) through the force of arms. Akhmat Khan's retreat destroyed the credibility of this threat. Regardless of the actual circumstances, the fact that the Russians defied him and successfully withstood his retaliation, ...


27

Maybe someone more knowledgeable about the economics of a society like the medieval Mongols might expand on this, but to me it seems that such a civilization could generate much more income by conquering and looting new territory than what they could produce internally. This is also true to the nomadic people in the migration period some centuries earlier: ...


26

The Mongols were pastoralists. Livestock herders. As such, their culture naturally thrived on steppe (or grassland) territory. A pastoral nation is not tied to any one place, but rather moves around with its herds to find the best grazing. A militarily dominant pastoralist society will naturally attempt to take over all good grassland territory for itself. ...


26

There are a number of tactical and strategic reasons that the Mongols were successful. Core of strong leaders: Not only were the upper levels of military leadership strong, but the mid-level and lower level leadership was also very strong. Flexibility of tactics: They used whatever means necessary to defeat their enemies, including using direct ...


25

During the time of Genghis Khan, horses were rarely shod. This from To Shoe or not to Shoe? Genghis Khan led his cavalry to victory on barefoot horses. Even several decades after the time of Genghis Khan, Roman Johann Jarymowycz in Cavalry from Hoof to Track notes that Mongol horses were not shod: About the only thing that thwarted the Mongol cavalry ...


24

A few points help in answering your question: The History has a Selection Bias The first issue is: Is your question accurate? Keep in mind that we inherited most of our history from the European perspective. There were plenty of cases where Europeans went out and conquered other groups, and the Europeans were just as warlike. The difference is that it ...


19

If your textbook indeed says this, it is evidently biased. First of all, these things (the Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, and European empires) belong to very different historical periods, and thus cannot be compared. The "world standards" of what is considered "benevolent" and "tolerant" are changing with time. For example, in antiquity and during most of ...


19

According to The Field Museum's Genghis Khan online exhibit... Man’s Boots Leather, 19th-20th century, National Museum of Mongolia These centuries-old leather boots are like those worn by warriors in Genghis Khan’s empire and nomadic Mongolians today. For battle, these felt-lined leather boots were often covered with armor plates as well. The ...


16

The Mongols wore silk underneath their armor. The benefit of using silk was that if a Mongol warrior was hit with an arrow the silk would not break and they could pull the arrow out by pulling on the silk on each side of the wound and the arrow would come out. References: Review of Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World Mongol War Strategy Koryo ...


16

The Mongols occupied Moscow briefly in 1237-1238 (less than a year). Basically only long enough to burn the city. At this time, they also occupied Beijing. The city was rebuilt over the next century and a half. But a second Mongol attempt to occupy the city was repulsed by Dmitriy Donskoy in 1380. Meanwhile, the Ming dynasty had successfully begun a revolt ...


16

As interesting as this seems to be, there seems to be not much light available to shine onto this issue, except for the fact that such a man existed, although probably not really in command of that late and lonely mission: Among eight Mongol prisoners captured in Austria during this reconnaissance there was an Englishman. He had once been a Templar, but ...


15

In this period, the Mongols had a nominal strength of around 100,000 to 130,000. According to the Secret History of the Mongols, Ghengis Khan had an army of 105,000 strong by A.D. 1206. This number grew to 129,000 by A.D. 1227, according to Rashid-al-Din_Hamadani in his Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh. Of the latter figure, 27,000 were new units raised from Manchuria. If ...


15

An important reason was to destroy those Muslims who opposed the Mongols. This meant that their mosques and Islamic texts were also targeted, especially those of the Isma‘ilis, a Shi‘ite sect which had openly defied the Mongols and which had probably been involved in an attempt on the life Mongke Khan. It should be noted, though, that the destruction of ...


14

There are two things that the Mongols had to their advantage when they waged war, significant numbers and superior training and discipline. These two factors almost always ensured that they would have the upper hand in any engagement. I found one source that suggested that a typical military unit for the Mongols would consist of three major units. One unit ...


14

A smithy capable of producing horseshoes and simple iron weapons can be constructed in a matter of days. Nomad does not mean "moves every day", the non-raiding members of a group would have spent most of winter in one place, and everyone would have spent weeks at a time in single places. Nomadic blacksmiths are not paradoxical at all.


14

Here is an outline of a few sentences distilled from many long paragraphs at my previously mentioned website. The apparent military superiority of the horse-mounted nomads of central Eurasia during ancient and medieval times was due to: The Scythian, Sarmatian, Alan, Hun, Avar, Magyar, Mongol, et al armies had a tremendous advantage in both strategic and ...


14

Genghis Khan mostly made a one-way trip. There were two main branches of the Silk Road (which wasn't an actual road, but rather an itinerary). One passed north of the Himalayas and one south (or by ship through the Arabian Sea). These were the easiest customary itineraries one could take to cross Asia, as they minimized the amount of mountain-crossing one ...


14

According to the wikipedia article on the topic: The Mongol vanguard was killed nearly to a man, with Thomas of Split writing: "the Hungarians immediately charged into them and did battle. They cut down a great many of them and pushed the rest back over the bridge, causing them to be drowned in the river." The Hungarians left some soldiers to guard the ...


13

Colours are used in many cultures to denote directions. Chinese and Turkish colour/directions systems are very similar, which is probably not a co-incidence. This picture from a linguistics blog compares them, and notes that the Red Sea and the Black Sea are named for their directions from Turkey. Comments on this question suggest that Belarus (White Russia)...


12

The Mongols and Manchus elected to "join" China upon conquering it, because the latter was more advanced and civilized. So upon conquering China, they just took over the Chinese cities, palaces, country, for themselves, and installed themselves as the ruling class. After the death of Genghis Khan, the "father" of the Mongol Empire, it divided into four ...


12

The Mongolians originally lived as a tribal culture, and all of their sons would from birth be trained on the horse, bow, and other weapons. As the Khans turned them into a war machine they would continue the training all young mongols received by incorporating tactics, and cavalry formations. "There was no such thing as a civilian population in Mongolia. ...


12

(from comment i turned it to answer) Nomadic people could use most of their male population as soldier, and they were full time on horse and using bows regularly. Also bows are good weapon for their tactics that works for battles on open field. Settled people however were mostly busy with agriculture, majority of their foot-soldiers are untrained peasants ...


12

Its fairly simple: There was an arrangement where the Russian Rulers were paying tribute to the Golden Horde since the days of Genghis Khan. This is the international equivalent of "protection money". Either pay them the money, or they'd come raid your territory and take whatever they want (probably quite destructively). In order to get money from someone ...


12

Your talking about the Golden horde, or the Ulus of Jochi. It was divided between Jochi's sons, but it remained united. It stretched from Central Asia to Eastern Europe. These were the western Mongolian domains, minus the troubled Ilkhanate of Persia. The Ulus of Jochi was its Mongolian name. The "Golden Horde" is what the Russians called it, but it was ...


11

One reason that Genghis Khan's Mongols expanded so far as they did was because each success brought with it a new set of enemies. Genghis Khan began by uniting the five core tribes: his own "Mongols," the Kereits, the Merkits, the Naiman, and the Tatars, accomplishing this by 1206. This earned him the emnity of several groups on the borders of the new "...


11

A very important reason was the death of Genghis Khan, the "maximum leader" in 1227. This caused his Empire to be divided into four "Khanates" (see bottom of link), Russia (yellow), the Middle East (purple), Central Asia (red), and China-Mongolia (green) in the map above. None of these entities had the power of the whole. More to the point, most empires ...


11

Question: Why then, many years later(during the great stand 1480), did the Mongols lose access to firearms and gunpowder weapons, while their subject Russians gained them? I don't think losing access is the right way to think about it. The Mongols used gunpowder creatively for a long time prior to the Great Stand. They were experienced in fighting with it ...


11

I've never seen the reference to the 'Templar' portion in particular, but an Englishman in the Mongol horde is something I've read. Unfortunately I can't find the book itself and simply have a review of the book to point to: The Tartar Khan's Englishman Ronay's deductions are sound and his theory for the identity of the Englishman is very believable and ...


10

The main library in Baghdad was Bayt al-Hikma, the House of Wisdom. A very good article about its content and activities is here. There were different phases. In the beginning they just interpreted Quran. Then they started translating foreign works. Later they started doing their own research in chemistry, algebra, medicine, and other disciplines. From ...


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