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160

A hunting dog (tesem) named Akbaru is depicted in the tomb of the Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Khufu (died c. 2566 BC). There is a stone relief dated to circa 2400 BC from the Fifth Dynasty showing a dog called Beha, probably a greyhound. The name Beha is possibly an abbreviation of "behkai" (oryx antelope), a dog's name known from other contexts Beha, ...


100

This would seem to be a piece of folklore. Anthropologists have not found a single society which does not use personal names in some form; they are a human universal. However, the forms that these names take and the ways in which they are bestowed and used vary between cultures. Source: Abstract from Ellen S. Bramwell, 'Personal Names and ...


80

Most people at the time did not think the Roman Empire had fallen -- it's only from five hundred or a thousand years later that we can conclude that it did. Both points of view are reasonable. What happened around 476 is that the Western part of the Roman Empire was lost to central control. This was not the first time it had happened -- consider the Gallic ...


35

Under an older system of transliteration, the Russians transliterated 김일성 (Kim Il-Sung) as Ким Ир Сен (Kim Irsen), which is still the standard way of rendering his name in Russian. Under the currently standard Kontsevich system, it would instead be transliterated as Ким Ильсо́н (Kim Ilson). It seems that those countries that were closer to Russia ...


31

It stands for "Titi filius Titi nepos", meaning "son of Titus and grandson of Titus" (filius and nepos mean son and grandson, respectively). This is because the consul Titus Flavius Sabinus was the son of the (non-consul) Titus Flavius Sabinus, who was in turn the son of Titus Flavius Petro. So as @SteveBird observed, the abbreivations are "filiation", i.e. ...


25

19th CENTURY HISTORIANS The term Hundred Years' War originated in the early 19th century. The Hundred Years War has become the established name for the Anglo-French conflicts that happened between 1337 and 1453. Although the designation does not refer to an actual event—the term was first used in France in the early 19th century — it usefully ...


25

"Conrad" is not a given name. "Conrad" is his first surname. Franz is his given name, along with Xaver Josef. Full name: Franz Xaver Josef Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf [given names ] [title] [surname] [nobility] [placename] WP: Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf The field marshal, with full name Franz Xaver Josef (since 1910 baron, 1918/19 ...


23

Somebody has compiled info about Roman dogs, mostly literary (Ovid) but also a few real ones, although sources for 'real' dogs may be questionable. https://www.unrv.com/culture/names-for-roman-dogs.php The oldest one appears to be this: Perseus. m. The name of the dog of Aemilia Tertia, daughter of the 2nd century BC Roman consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus ...


20

Long before well known Cerberus from Greek mythology the Mesopotamian goddess Bau, later named Gula, is depicted with a dog's head: Bau seems originally to have been goddess of the dog; as Nininsina she was long represented with a dog’s head, and the dog was her emblem. This dates from around 3300 B.C. when depictions of collared dogs appear in art. ...


19

The Korean language has a different set of phonemes compared to most Indo-European languages. Phonemes are individual sounds that are distinguished in pronunciation and used to differentiate words. For example, in English the words lot and rot are perceived as different because of the way the first letter (l versus r, typically denoted /l/ versus /r/) is ...


16

There are no specific rules, it is completely up to the founders. Many dynasties ultimately took their names from one of the ancient states of China. In any case, usually the actual choice were made in one of six ways: Reviving an Ancient Name: the dynasty began where an ancient state existed, and took its name from its ancient predecessor. Examples include ...


15

William III was a member of the House of Nassau and, as the Prince of Orange a pre-eminent Dutch leader. In 1672 he became a Stadtholder in the Dutch Republic. Following the Glorious Revolution in 1688, he reigned in Britain as the King of England, Scotand, and Ireland. Note that during this time, in a display of national romanticism, the Dutch people ...


15

Warren Treadgold, one of the most eminent scholars on the Byzantine Empire puts it simply as follows: Modern historians have called this empire "Byzantine" because it was ruled not from Rome but from Constantinople, the former Byzantium Hieronymus Wolf was the earliest known historian to use the name of the Byzantine Empire's capital to refer to the ...


14

I’m thinking I should rephrase my comment as an answer rather. I believe the correct answer would be “they didn’t”, and that’s why. While the surname and name of Cao Cao almost match in modern Mandarin (except the tone is different, Cáo Cāo, so they don’t), it is but a figment of language development that led to modern Mandarin. He was active is AD II-III ...


13

An article from the Smithsonian magazine titled "The History of the Doughnut" also states that Captain Hanson Gregory invented the toroidal doughnut. The reason for the invention seems less clear. The article notes that: Some cynical doughnut historians maintain that Captain Gregory did it to stint on ingredients, others that he thought the hole might ...


12

While Tecumseh was an enemy of the US while alive, his name was well known. The first ship named after him was a Canonicus-class monitor during the Civil War, some 50 years after Tecumseh's death. The other Canonicus monitors were named after other Native Americans or places with names derived from Native American words (generally - the first was renamed ...


10

I am restricting this to rulers titles; there are some families were one of the sons gets the name of the father and so use numerals, but they are out of scope. It is not "William I" or "William I", but "William I of Germany" and "William I of England". The number is used to indicate between different holders of the same title and same name. So, if we are ...


10

The Medieval ages, and in turn the 100 years war, was a politically a different beast than war as we are used to it in the modern era. During both world wars we see a declaration by majors powers declaring that a state of war now exists between countries and their belligerent allies. This is how the world at large waged war and is the common way that we ...


10

"Conrad" was his actual surname. "von Hötzendorf" was the nobilary particle his grandfather assumed when he became ennobled, but it was in fact derived from a maternal line (and thus was technically not his patronym, but just his title). That was likely a large part of the reason. Further complicating matters, he didn't have nobilary particle for the last 6 ...


10

In the Orthodox Church parish priests are virtually always married. Monks and higher clergy (Bishops etc.) are celibate.


9

According to the historical records of the Cornaro / Cornèr family of Venice, they have their ancestral ground from gens Cornelia, via the city of Rimini. Here are links for Wikipedia (Italian version is more informative) and The Art of Living Long from Louis Cornaro, William Temple the family can derive themselves back into Middle ages so Cornaro / Cornèr ...


9

Fantine I don't believe "Fantine" is a proper name, that is no mother ever names a child "Fantine" it's more of a nickname. It comes from the same root as "infant". It basically means "babyish"... which being an orphan girl matches her character. This name was used by Victor Hugo for the mother of Cosette in his novel 'Les Misérables' (1862). The name ...


8

Short answer: The longest chain of the same personal name used from father to son from generation to generation that I know of seems to be at least 22 generations according to my sources. Long answer: One example of a long chain of using the same personal name is: Louis XVII of France, the Dauphin in the Temple, was the son of Louis XVI, the son of ...


8

This reminds me a bit of the old internet hacker/cracker argument. Originally "hacking" was a word for any generalized kind of computer tinkering, and had largely positive connotations. However, mass media felt the most interesting facet of hacking was computer security intrusion, and proceeded to act is if that's all the word meant. A lot of us on the ...


7

The main issue with sustaining a 'line' is that without modern medicine, a decent fraction of marriages will not result in children. This ends that gens right there. If you have children, they may die before reaching the age to marry. In ancient times, child mortality was high, something in the 30-50 percent range. Wealthy families might do a little ...


7

The wikipedia page on gens notes that Although both the concept of the gens and of the patriciate survived well into imperial times, both gradually lost most of their significance. In the final centuries of the Western Empire, patricius was used primarily as an individual title, rather than a class to which an entire family belonged. The gens originally ...


7

As already highlighted in comments, the use of 'western naming system' is problematic so it is only possible to produce a fairly generalized answer for most of western Europe (and, by extension and to greatly varying degrees, areas subjected to European colonization - primarily French and British). In The Means of Naming: A social and cultural history of ...


7

The personal name in the Roman naming system is composed of several independent elements. A Roman male name of the late Republic such as Q. Numerius Q. f. Vel. Rufus comprises the following: the praenomen or the old individual name (siglum Q = Quintus ), the gentile or family name (Numerius), the filiation, which gives the ...


6

You are conflating many different things, some of which still happen regularly: Transliteration is still necessary, and it happens a lot, often with differences from one country to the next (cf. Wladimir Putin/Vladimir Putin/Vladimir Poutine) Monarchs' names do get translated, at least occasionally, especially by people who care about such things. Thus, ...


6

Maria Celesta is translated from the Latin as Heavenly Mary. This could mean a woman's name in a Catholic country or Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. In Catholic countries, naming ships in this way was quite common. Certainly they would not name a ship in honor of Galileo's daughter.


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