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77

Most people at the time did not think the Roman Empire had fallen -- it's only from five hundred or a thousand years later that we can conclude that it did. Both points of view are reasonable. What happened around 476 is that the Western part of the Roman Empire was lost to central control. This was not the first time it had happened -- consider the Gallic ...


35

Under an older system of transliteration, the Russians transliterated 김일성 (Kim Il-Sung) as Ким Ир Сен (Kim Irsen), which is still the standard way of rendering his name in Russian. Under the currently standard Kontsevich system, it would instead be transliterated as Ким Ильсо́н (Kim Ilson). It seems that those countries that were closer to Russia ...


30

It stands for "Titi filius Titi nepos", meaning "son of Titus and grandson of Titus" (filius and nepos mean son and grandson, respectively). This is because the consul Titus Flavius Sabinus was the son of the (non-consul) Titus Flavius Sabinus, who was in turn the son of Titus Flavius Petro. So as @SteveBird observed, the abbreivations are "filiation", i.e. ...


24

"Conrad" is not a given name. "Conrad" is his first surname. Franz is his given name, along with Xaver Josef. Full name: Franz Xaver Josef Graf Conrad von Hötzendorf [given names ] [title] [surname] [nobility] [placename] WP: Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf The field marshal, with full name Franz Xaver Josef (since 1910 baron, 1918/19 ...


23

19th CENTURY HISTORIANS The term Hundred Years' War originated in the early 19th century. The Hundred Years War has become the established name for the Anglo-French conflicts that happened between 1337 and 1453. Although the designation does not refer to an actual event—the term was first used in France in the early 19th century — it usefully ...


19

The Korean language has a different set of phonemes compared to most Indo-European languages. Phonemes are individual sounds that are distinguished in pronunciation and used to differentiate words. For example, in English the words lot and rot are perceived as different because of the way the first letter (l versus r, typically denoted /l/ versus /r/) is ...


15

William III was a member of the House of Nassau and, as the Prince of Orange a pre-eminent Dutch leader. In 1672 he became a Stadtholder in the Dutch Republic. Following the Glorious Revolution in 1688, he reigned in Britain as the King of England, Scotand, and Ireland. Note that during this time, in a display of national romanticism, the Dutch people ...


15

Warren Treadgold, one of the most eminent scholars on the Byzantine Empire puts it simply as follows: Modern historians have called this empire "Byzantine" because it was ruled not from Rome but from Constantinople, the former Byzantium Hieronymus Wolf was the earliest known historian to use the name of the Byzantine Empire's capital to refer to the ...


14

An article from the Smithsonian magazine titled "The History of the Doughnut" also states that Captain Hanson Gregory invented the toroidal doughnut. The reason for the invention seems less clear. The article notes that: Some cynical doughnut historians maintain that Captain Gregory did it to stint on ingredients, others that he thought the hole might ...


12

There are no specific rules, it is completely up to the founders. Many dynasties ultimately took their names from one of the ancient states of China. In any case, usually the actual choice were made in one of six ways: Reviving an Ancient Name: the dynasty began where an ancient state existed, and took its name from its ancient predecessor. Examples include ...


10

I am restricting this to rulers titles; there are some families were one of the sons gets the name of the father and so use numerals, but they are out of scope. It is not "William I" or "William I", but "William I of Germany" and "William I of England". The number is used to indicate between different holders of the same title and same name. So, if we are ...


10

"Conrad" was his actual surname. "von Hötzendorf" was the nobilary particle his grandfather assumed when he became ennobled, but it was in fact derived from a maternal line (and thus was technically not his patronym, but just his title). That was likely a large part of the reason. Further complicating matters, he didn't have nobilary particle for the last 6 ...


10

While Tecumseh was an enemy of the US while alive, his name was well known. The first ship named after him was a Canonicus-class monitor during the Civil War, some 50 years after Tecumseh's death. The other Canonicus monitors were named after other Native Americans or places with names derived from Native American words (generally - the first was renamed ...


9

According to the historical records of the Cornaro / Cornèr family of Venice, they have their ancestral ground from gens Cornelia, via the city of Rimini. Here are links for Wikipedia (Italian version is more informative) and The Art of Living Long from Louis Cornaro, William Temple the family can derive themselves back into Middle ages so Cornaro / Cornèr ...


9

Fantine I don't believe "Fantine" is a proper name, that is no mother ever names a child "Fantine" it's more of a nickname. It comes from the same root as "infant". It basically means "babyish"... which being an orphan girl matches her character. This name was used by Victor Hugo for the mother of Cosette in his novel 'Les Misérables' (1862). The name ...


9

In the Orthodox Church parish priests are virtually always married. Monks and higher clergy (Bishops etc.) are celibate.


7

The main issue with sustaining a 'line' is that without modern medicine, a decent fraction of marriages will not result in children. This ends that gens right there. If you have children, they may die before reaching the age to marry. In ancient times, child mortality was high, something in the 30-50 percent range. Wealthy families might do a little ...


7

The wikipedia page on gens notes that Although both the concept of the gens and of the patriciate survived well into imperial times, both gradually lost most of their significance. In the final centuries of the Western Empire, patricius was used primarily as an individual title, rather than a class to which an entire family belonged. The gens originally ...


7

The Medieval ages, and in turn the 100 years war, was a politically a different beast than war as we are used to it in the modern era. During both world wars we see a declaration by majors powers declaring that a state of war now exists between countries and their belligerent allies. This is how the world at large waged war and is the common way that we ...


7

As already highlighted in comments, the use of 'western naming system' is problematic so it is only possible to produce a fairly generalized answer for most of western Europe (and, by extension and to greatly varying degrees, areas subjected to European colonization - primarily French and British). In The Means of Naming: A social and cultural history of ...


7

The personal name in the Roman naming system is composed of several independent elements. A Roman male name of the late Republic such as Q. Numerius Q. f. Vel. Rufus comprises the following: the praenomen or the old individual name (siglum Q = Quintus ), the gentile or family name (Numerius), the filiation, which gives the ...


6

You are conflating many different things, some of which still happen regularly: Transliteration is still necessary, and it happens a lot, often with differences from one country to the next (cf. Wladimir Putin/Vladimir Putin/Vladimir Poutine) Monarchs' names do get translated, at least occasionally, especially by people who care about such things. Thus, ...


6

Maya society was organized in city states and clans and possibly other entities. Each of these naturally provides its own narratives and mythology from which names would often be chosen. It is therefore common that multiple individuals from similar contexts, e.g. multiple rulers of the same polity, would have similar or identical names. For instance, several ...


6

Given that The British Museum Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, Margaret Bunson's Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt and The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt - not to mention googling (for example, here and here) - all fail to mention any other individuals by the name of Imhotep, we can reasonably assume that there are no other known, notable ancient Egyptians ...


5

Basically, they petered out and were replaced by new families who in some instances gratuitously grafted old illustrious names to theirs. This process took place a number of times. For example, according to one estimate, by 69 CE only 2% of the senators had republican patrician ancestry. And that was before the large influx of provincials into the ...


5

William III was of the Dutch house of Orange-Nassau. The name “Batavia” comes from the Germanic tribe of the Batavians, living near the mouth of the Rhine during the Roman republic. The name “Batavia” was also used later, e.g. for the Batavian Republic, in a similar fashion to how “Gallia” and derivations thereof can sometimes be used instead of “France” or “...


5

Your question is too broad to fully answer, but the ideas behind the phrase have indirectly led to the UN. The optimism about preventing conflicts through cooperation is alive and well. Optimism about said cooperation ending all wars almost certainly died with the abject failure of the League of Nations - and never was extremely widespread to begin with. H....


5

SHORT ANSWER: The Roman Empire had many different avatars or incarnations, and thus it fell on many different dates. LONG ANSWER: I do not count the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the French Empire, the German Empire, or the Austrian Empire as any sort of continuation of the Roman Empire. ...


5

This happened in Turkey, as part of a deliberate attempt to replace old names: Approximately 12,000 village names that are non-Turkish, understood to originate from non-Turkish roots, and identified as causing confusion have been examined and replaced with Turkish names, and put into effect by the Substitution Committee for Foreign Names functioning at ...


4

Maria Celesta is translated from the Latin as Heavenly Mary. This could mean a woman's name in a Catholic country or Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. In Catholic countries, naming ships this was was quite common. Certainly they would not name a ship in honor of Galileo's daughter.


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