57

According to this page which cites "Steckel, Richard H. and Roderick Floud (eds.)Health and Welfare during Industrialization Chicago : University of Chicago, 1997" as a source, the average height of a Frenchman between 1800 and 1820 was 164.1 cm. According to the French historian, Marcel Dunan (1963): "If one refers to the Memoirs of Marchand, t. II, ...


29

The answer is a very solid yes although I'd prefer the word Intervene rather than invade. India was one of the key possessions of British and Indian trade was crucial to British economy at that time. As long as British economy was strong, Britain would have been able to field expeditionary forces to thwart French ambitions worldwide. So that's where ...


22

Considering he escaped from an island prison and re-rallied the country, putting him in the Bastille (in the middle of France) and then leaving and demobilzing your army would quite obviously have been a Bad Idea. As for not executing him...I don't think they could really do that either. His only real "crime" was leading armies against them and losing. If ...


19

In 1799, Napoleon went from Egypt, where his bases were, through modern Israel to Acre (Acco). In Acre he attempted a siege, lost it, and returned to Egypt. Acre was the northernmost point he reached in Israel. Napoleon was not in Israel before or after 1799. Other places he passed through in Israel were: Gaza, Jaffa, Haifa, Mount Tabor and Jordan River.


17

Napoleon fled (if that's the right word) in some style, travelling with a "suite" that included three generals, two French counts and countesses and their four children, ten army officers, a doctor, two cooks and 26 other servants along with the imperial dinner service and silver plate and "several boatloads of luggage". So this clearly wasn't act of a ...


17

Napoleon is widely described as either a demigod or a demon / devil, though, as Danila Smirnov mentioned, not immortal. Might you be misremembering this, or perhaps something like it: Napoleon . . . [is] sometimes cast as a demigod, sometimes as a demon, practically always seen as a figure considerably larger than life. Probably no other mortal has ...


16

Yes, the two wars were indeed related, and even rather closely. Both wars were tied to Napoleon's ongoing war with Britain. Napoleon had set up the Continental system to boycott British trade; this led to the invasion of Russia, while Britain's impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States of America. Having earlier failed ...


15

According to Gary Gagliardi, Napoleon was particularly indebted to Sun Tzu for the combination of "Chang" and Ch'i. That is, the combination of a direct attack, which could be repulsed with difficulty, followed by a "smaller," but more lethal surprise attack that would administer the coup de grace to the enemy. On the other hand, Napoleon apparently paid ...


15

Short Answer: You're both correct. Which date to pick for ending the French Revolution is a matter of opinion. Your friend is not wrong. The downfall and execution of Maximilien de Robespierre is considered by many to be an end date for the French Revolution. For many historians, the end of Robespierre coincided with the end of the Revolution itself. ...


14

As far as I know, David's correct - the wargame as we know it today was invented shortly after Napoleon's time by a Prussian man named Reiswitz. Without knowing your source on this, I see three possibilities for Napoleon's wargames: 1) It was something like chess (variations were popular at the time), which could provide the psychological insight you ...


14

Fortunately for Napoleon, not speaking French well was still very common in France in this period. In 1794, only one tenth of the population were fluent in French. The pre-Napoleonic revolutionary government made strides to rectify this by banning all non-Parisian French dialects for official business, but they didn't devote the resources to educate the ...


14

Your last quote from Bourrienne seems to be the most correct version. Essentially, the context is that Napoleon held a very high opinion of the East and wanted to organize expeditions at least as far as India. The quote seems to have been said before his expedition to Egypt, and was likely in reference to further eastward expeditions. Since Bourrienne was ...


13

France was in 1792 attacked by a coalition of states, that included several Italian states. Although the Papal States and Republic of Venice was not amongst them, Naples and Sicily was. This put the Papal States as well as Venice in the middle of the war between Austria and France, since Venice was located between France and Austria and the Papal States ...


12

The attribution certainly predates Lenin. A Google Book search indicates that it was well-established by at least 1890: "Wenn Napoleon sagte: »on s'engage et puis on voit!« so bezeichnet er damit nur das Verfahren aller selbstständigeren Heerund Trnppenführer." [Monatshefte für Politik und Wehrmacht, p.284, 1889] "Le mot de Napoléon : « On s'engage ...


11

The War of 1812 between Britain and America was very directly related to the Napoleonic Wars in Europe (which included the French invasion of Russia). The War of 1812 was a by-product of the Napoleonic War of 1803 to 1814. It's origins lay in the increasingly oppressive measures adopted by France and Britain to undermine the economies of their rivals, and ...


10

To expand on the answer by Giter, here is the original French of de Bourrienne's retelling of that passage (V 2, pp 44) from an 1829 French edition in the NY Public Library: My take is that Quinn's version sounds like a mis-remembering of de Bourrienne's, a simplified recollection. But it is more difficult to imagine how de Bourrienne's version would arise ...


10

We have no evidence that Napoleon was ill during June 1815. None. Nada. Zilch. While on St. Helena, Napoleon wrote extensively about his final campaign, blaming Ney and Grouchy extensively and usually unjustly, demonstrating great ease with finding excuses for the loss. Yet never once does he mention any personal ailments. Neither are there accounts by any ...


9

In addition to Drux's fine answer, Napoleon's ability to evade the British was down to a number of factors but miscommunication by the British played a very large part. When Sir Sidney Smith was assigned to the Levant Squadron, he was also given a diplomatic mission by the British Cabinet. However, this additional role was not communicated to his superiors ...


9

In the book Napoleon After Waterloo: England and the St. Helena Decision By Michael John Thornton the status of Napoleon is discussed in great detail, including questions of law. There are several considerations: Napoleon had been declared a criminal and a madman in the Declaration of the Powers against Napoleon. "Accordingly, the Powers declare that ...


8

Napoleon WAS imprisoned. The first time, at Elba, was under "house arrest." Security was lax, and he escaped and started the "100 Days." The British didn't make the same mistake the second time. The venue chosen for his exile was St. Helena Island in the South Atlantic, one of the most isolated places in the world. It is more than 1000 miles from Angola to ...


8

Following-up on @FelixGoldberg's answer I found this in Sources and Notes of Vincent Cronin's Napoleon: The remark attributed to N[apoleon], "I know men, and I tell you that Jesus Christ was not a man" is apocryphal. [Robert-Antoine de] Beauterne, who coined it never met N[apoleon]. This is good enough evidence for me; it suggests the following: ...


8

Here is an ancester chart for Joachim Murat's son Lucien from wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucien_Murat#Ancestry1 All Joachim Murat's ancestors up to Pierre Murat seem to have married women with French surnames. Thus the ancestors back for three generations seem to have lived in France. His ancestors farther back could have lived in France or ...


7

Bonaparte's biographer Vincent Cronin's mentions the British naval blockade but no further preventive countermeasures (that I could find upon brief reconsultation). Perhaps this is because this is a one-volume biography of a (in some ways :) big subject. As to Sidney Smith's role (he is also mentioned in the Wikipedia article), his biographer Tom Pocock ...


7

You will have a difficult time convincing me that Napoleon was the best battlefield technician of all time, when he was (at best!) only the third most expert French practitioner of that art during the Napoleonic Era; Davout and likely Desaix would head that list, and all of Soult, Lannes and Massena can at least be argued as more expert than Napoleon). ...


7

The short answer to your question is that for much of his early life Napoleon was a Corsican patriot but only a French opportunist. He inherited from his father a fierce love of both Corsica and Pasquale Paoli, and did not consider himself French nor was he particularly loyal to France outside of the fact that it gave him an opportunity to move up in life. ...


6

He was probably lucky that he managed to surrender to the British (strictly speaking he claimed political asylum) rather than the Prussians. Even then he had a number of political supporters in Britain that thought imprisonment was a bit severe! "To consign to distant exile and imprisonment a foreign and captive Chief, who, after the abdication of his ...


6

Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage; Minds innocent and quiet take That for an hermitage; To Althea, from Prison Napoleon was imprisoned. He could not travel beyond the confines of the island, nor could anyone visit him. "Prison" isn't defined by the quality of the cell, but by the restrictions on liberties and the possession ...


6

Modern Israel, Egypt, Palestine and Syria were all part of the Ottoman Empire during the time of Napoleon. Under him, the French led an expedition from Malta to Egypt, which later travelled through modern Israel, capturing several port cities on the way. The answer is then yes, Napoleon tried and succeeded in taking a couple of cities in what is modern ...


6

Being a voracious reader, there is little doubt that Napoleon may have read the Jesuit translation of the Art of War by Sun Tzu. He may have dismissed the wisdom of Sun Tzu or at least never mentioned the Asian strategist, because of the preference he had for the authors of antiquity. Perhaps Sun Tzu simply confirmed that which he had already gleaned from ...


6

This quote appears in several mid-1800s texts, including the above-referenced "Sur Le Christianisme" text. Henry Parry Liddon wrote a footnote regarding the quote suggesting its authenticity. He references another Bertrand source, "Sentiment de Napoleon sur la Divinite de Jesus Christ." He cites a response to the author of the preface to Campagnes d'Egypte ...


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