59

Short answer For most of the war, the main supply of rubber for Germany and Italy was synthetic rubber. They were able to obtain some natural rubber from Japanese controlled Southeast Asia via the Soviet Union (until June 1941) and limited (by blockades) amounts via shipping. There were also pre-war stockpiles, while some was seized from French stockpiles ...


42

SHORT ANSWERS In terms of impact, the influx of precious metals into Spain (and then to the rest of Europe) from South America from the late 15th to the 16th century is hard to match. For a while, this made Spain enormously wealthy and enabled it to finance armies and conquests on a scale not seen since at least the Roman Empire. It turned Spain into a ...


25

Sugar cane in the Caribbean comes to mind. The islands were sporting single purpose economies for all practical intents, much like a number of OPEC countries do. It was extremely valuable, too. In the aftermath of the 7 years war, France preferred to give up its Canadian possessions to keep Guadeloupe and Martinique. The parallel extends somewhat in that ...


16

I would posit that such booms and rushes are not the exception but the norm, and there is more to be learned from the study of them than from mere war and politics. The effects of the latter are comparatively easily (and often, quickly) reversed, while the effects of booms and rushes usually reverberate for generations. Some examples: Bananas. Today we ...


9

Indirectly Historically, Sweden ended trade with Germany in November 1944. That is a bit late in the war, and Allies pressured them to do something much earlier, but there was always a threat of German army stationed in Norway and Sweden was practically isolated in Scandinavian peninsula. Add to that significant part of population that were anti-Communist ...


7

Peru's Guano Era comes to mind. Within about 2 decades, it economy boomed. However, as the guano ran out, a diversification into saltpeter did not work out so well, and the lost war with Chile dropped Peru back to its pre-Guano economic situation.


6

There are two main factors capacity, and time. The destruction of the Dutch East Indies oil fields meant that they produced at only 60% of earlier capacity when Japan managed to restore them. This restoration took place a year later. Capturing the oil fields intact would have meant 100% of capacity available in early 1942 instead of 60% in early 1943. Also, ...


6

I'm not sure about New York in particular but for the United States as a whole, the crossover point happened around the mid-1880s.This is nicely illustrated on a chart included in the history section of the Wikipedia article on energy consumption in the United States.


6

With respect to the Persian king, Encyclopedia of Kitchen History by Mary Ellen Snodgrass, p 427, offers (sorry for the screenshot ... Google Books doesn't allow to select text): I unfortunately can't locate the bibliography section to back the claim, but a Greek text describing how the king of the Medes in Psittakos, Persia, erected a kitchen alongside a ...


4

Though there may have been logging smaller trees earlier, It appears that the first well documented felling of one of the giant trees may have been in 1853: On Monday, 27 June, 1853, a giant sequoia – one of the natural world's most awe-inspiring sights - was brought to the ground by a band of gold-rush speculators in Calaveras county, California. It ...


4

Looking at the Wikipedia page... The first patent for refining crude oil was filed in 1850 The first oil refinery was built in 1856 The first commercial oil well was built in 1858 So the technological advancements seem to relate to (1) making something generally useful from oil, and (2) being able to extract oil in a large enough scale to create a large ...


3

In brief, the desire to capture them intact is because Japan needed the production and refining capacity immediately in order to conduct the war in the manner they wanted. They actually had reasonable success in doing so, and restoring what losses there were, but transport of oil products to Japan became the real bottleneck as the war went on. So, lets look ...


3

Auguste Duhaut-Cilly visited Fort Ross in 1828. He made a famous drawing of the fort and wrote: We went with Mr. Shelekhov to view his timber production.... Mr. Shelekhov showed me the trunk of one that had been felled recently; it was twenty feet in diameter measured two feet from the ground and from one burl or buttress to the other; the main trunk was ...


2

One example of a region that became wealthy and powerful after a single event was California, whose Gold Rush directly and indirectly increased the population of the state by an order of magnitude.


2

Question: What was the main purpose in Japan trying to capture the Dutch East Indies oil fields intact? In 1941, Japan relied on oil imports to run it's economy. Japan imported 90% of their oil from the United States, UK, and Dutch(East Indies). When Japan invaded IndoChina (Vietnam), Sept 1940, a blanket oil embargo was imposed on Japan by all of its ...


1

The coming together of coal, iron/steelmaking and the invention of the steam engine in pre-Victorian Britain produced the first wave of cheap energy. While not very far ahead of other European countries, leading the wave seems to be instrumental in transforming just another European colonial power to the first global (admittedly short lived) Empire. ...


1

For more than thousand of years the Middle Asia and some neighbouring regions got profits from the Silk Way from China to Europe. It worked practically until Vasco Da Gama. As for longevity of the source of free money, interesting people and ideas, I think, it was the record. As for gold/silver rushes, they brought inflation, too, and were not so useful. ...


1

Here is a blog post from 2006 that identifies Cochrane as Hon. Cochrane (later to become Lord Chochrane [sic] of Cults) So it appears his full name was "Thomas George Frederick Cochrane, 2nd Baron Cochrane of Cults" Sorry nothing on Mr. Marriot so far... Edit: Here is another source, this one identifying TGC as "later Lord Cochrane"


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