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58

I think a key part of this is whether the President's captain intentionally faked the initial surrender. Since Decatur could not know the exact condition of the Endymion but was well aware of the condition of his own vessel (and the increasing proximity of the rest of the British squadron), I think he genuinely intended to surrender his ship. Once he saw ...


57

The exclusion zone mentioned in the article is described in the Wikipedia article as follows: The Total Exclusion Zone (TEZ) was an area declared by the United Kingdom on 30 April 1982 covering a circle of radius 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) from the centre of the Falkland Islands. During the Falklands War any sea vessel or aircraft from any country ...


52

Mistaking the Sims for a cruiser is easy: a Sims-class destroyer has the same number of turrets (3) as the majority of American cruisers, while most American destroyers of the time had two, four, or five turrets. Without anything to provide a sense of scale, it's easy to mistake one for the other, particularly if you're not getting close enough to count the ...


46

From lateen sail history we note that the first known type of fore-and-aft rig capable of working upwind is the spritsail: The earliest fore-and-aft rig was the spritsail, appearing in the 2nd century BC in the Aegean Sea on small Greek craft. The lateen sail originated somewhat later during the Roman empire in the Mediterranean Sea. As the efficiency of ...


34

Basically three options: 1. Ramp or gangway: The easiest and most preferable way. Might require specialised or retrofitted ships: (extreme left, vertically centered, click to enlarge) (Ottomans conquering the Limassol Castle, between 1571 and 1581 Source Şehname-i Selim Han, Istanbul, ca. 1571–81, Topkapı Palace Museum Library, A. 3595, fol. 102b.) "...


31

No. It is true the US Coastal Command found itself with a lack of ASW assets in Dec 1941. According to uboat.net the Eastern Sea Frontier had... 4 Yard Patrol Boats 4 Subchasers 1 Coast Guard Cutter 3 Eagle-class patrol boats 103 aircraft, five of which were combat ready However, the 50 old destroyers would not have made a significant difference. More ...


26

Misidentifying of ships from scout planes was a consistent problem for both sides in the Pacific Theater. In fact, it seems that getting a scouting report exactly right was more the exception rather than the rule. In particular, pilots appeared to have a distinct tendency to inflate the importance (or size) of the ships they were sighting. According to ...


21

Courtesy of a comment below by Samuel Russel, this particular salient point must be borne in mind while reading the following: Surrender needs to be effectively received. The lack of efficacy was obvious to Endymion: President was capable of flight. To apply modern rules of war to events of two hundred years ago is absurd. Further, it has always been the ...


20

There were trials and plans, but Mosquitos never actually operated from carriers. Eric "Winkle" Brown who was the chief naval test pilot at RAE Farnborough at the time, did deck-landing and takeoff trials aboard HMS Indefatigable on 25th March 1944. This was the first landing of a twin-engine aircraft aboard a Royal Navy carrier, and his memoirs (Wings On My ...


19

Before considering how to disengage from a boarding action, I think you have to consider the difficulties and risks of bringing about a boarding action in the first place. To evade a boarding attempt by manoeuvre was relatively easy. It was in practice very difficult to get near enough to a ship to attempt to board her unless it was also her intention to ...


16

Questions. When did humans develop the ability to sail any direction regardless of wind direction? Short Answer: The Anglo Saxons Norsemen, early Vikings would have been the first to travel close to the wind sometime in the 6th century. Without a keel one can't sail close to ...


14

The "Sea Mosquito" was tested in March 1944 with carrier deck landing trials on HMS Indefatigable in the Irish Sea. The pilot (almost inevitably) was the legendary Eric 'Winkle' Brown. He discussed the trials in a 2015 video, where he noted several problems with using the Mosquito in carrier operation, not the least of which was that the carrier’s ...


13

I'd like to provide an alternative explanation that addresses the question of, "How could two independent reports contain exactly the same mistakes?", which isn't specific to this battle, but would apply here: The consequences of strict hierarchical rigidity in Japanese culture and an emphasis on conformity. This is an alternative (but not ...


11

I'm not sure why @Spencer didn't post this as an answer, but I believe he is correct in his comment from Apr in 2018 (as is the more recent (June 2018) limited response from @Rob Crawford): There is another snippet from the Madrid Skylitzes showing this same thing on land, on top of a hill, while the boat rows away, depicing Thomas the Slav fleeing to ...


10

The Naval Chronicle (Vol 21) gives some additional information on the rescue fleet (that gives a significantly larger value for the number of transports). Plymouth, Jan. 23. Arrived this morning the Barfleur, of 100 guns, Rear-admiral Hood; Tonnant, of 80 guns, Rear-admiral de Courcy; Victory, of 100 guns; Implacable, Resolution, Norge, Elizabeth, and ...


10

As noted in a comment there's a section of the Bayeux tapestry that depicts a horse being transported and another being led out of the water. Digging a bit deeper though, it looks like there was a bit of handwaving involved by the tapestry's creators. Warfare in Medieval Europe 400–1453 by Bernard Bachrach and David Bachrach has a whole section on horse ...


9

I started on this as it looked like a pleasant naval mystery. I'm providing a Summary Answer above, and below my method for reaching that conclusion as well as other relevant information. A lot of my final version for this answer derives from a serendipitous find of a KuK Kriegsmarine document without which it would have been impossible to include this ...


9

In general, in USN service, the preferred practice was for fighter aircraft to intercept attacking enemy aircraft outside the task force / task group AA envelope. Entering that envelope could have some distinctly unpleasant results. Did fighter pilots chase their quarry into the AA envelope? Certainly, happened often enough to be commented on. At Midway, ...


8

I'm not sure that I've the depth of information that you require but the following might be of use as a pointer for others. Transportation of troops (and all their supplies) during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars was the responsibility of the appropriately named Transportation Board. The commencement of the Peninsular War vastly increased ...


8

I suspect that, less than an absolute "solution" or match, the usefulness was in limiting U-boats' tactical options: deck guns. Early ww2 U-boats had guns and liked to use them - saved on torpedoes among other things. surface, rather than submerged stalking and attacking. U-boats, until the Schnorkels came along (too late to do much), ran on batteries ...


8

The Dutch lost control of the seas in spite of, not because of, their "juridical" strengths. They had a different, more enlightened view of the "Law of the Sea", which they were ultimately unable to "enforce" against stronger countries. Specifically, Dutch philosophers such as Grotius, called for "open" seas for all countries, and thereby equal (commercial) ...


8

There is no safe position in landing craft Impression that people often get from the movies is a group of soldiers standing (sitting) safely behind closed doors(ramp) in a landing craft. But once this ramp lowers, first to get out are first to be killed. As with most things in Hollywood, this impression is quite wrong. If we exclude naval mines (which were ...


8

As you mentioned, Java is the next island to the Southeast of Sumatra. It is not larger than Sumatra in square miles, but even in Polo's day had the heaviest concentration of population in all of what is now Indonesia. This made it the cultural center of the region. It had the largest population in 1AD, and contains the capital of Indonesia today. Australia ...


7

As has been stated also by others, the real cost of a navy was not the construction cost, but the operating cost. According to Thucydides, the operating cost in 5th century Athens amounted to one silver talent per trireme per month, which is approximately 25 kilograms of silver per month. This is mentioned in Thucydides VI, 8.1 when in the spring of 415, ...


6

Armed merchantmen could clearly deal with a submarine attacking by day, on surface. During the night, U-Boats surface attacks would include many submarines, and the capacity of numerous merchantmen to defend a convoy would clearly be about the tactical plot: Who would detect first? Detect before the launch of torpedoes? Meteorological conditions And in ...


6

As far as I know, "Instructions for training a ships crew in the use of arms in attack and defence" by Lieutenant William Pringle Green, is the first book on how a crew of the Royal Navy should train with swords and guns, how they should defend their ship in case of boarding, or to board an enemy vessel themselves. The year of publication is 1812, so not ...


6

You'll essentially find a book-length answer to this question in Dutch Ships in Tropical Waters by Robert Parthesius (2010, Amsterdam University Press). Here's a key table (p. 90), showing that the VOC had 328 ships in use c. 1650-1660, and had steadily brought over 1000 into service since the end of the sixteenth century.


6

"Most" officers in the Navy (and Army and Marines) get two promotions if they stay long enough. In the Navy, that would be from Ensign (ENS.) to Lieutenant Junior grade (LTJG.) and then to Lieutenant (LT - the equivalent of an Army or Air Force Captain). That's because the first two officer ranks are basically "trainee" positions, and the last one mentioned ...


6

The following is sourced from a short magazine article 'Fall of the Dutch East Indies', by Lt.-Commander F.C. van Oosten, and doesn't fully address all aspects of the question, but is intended to provide a little more information on the events preceding the Battle of the Java Sea, in the hope of shedding some further light on decision making. On February 3 ...


5

I'm inclined to write an answer with a different tone to that of the other one: namely, the Dutch never had control of the seas and as such they couldn't lose it. The strategic options that a naval power has include the control of the seas, denying the seas to the enemy, or, in essence, fighting on an equal footing (i.e., not using overpowering numbers to ...


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