68

Short Answer Despite the claims of some sites, I can find no evidence that Hitler himself said 'Heil Hitler', and it would make no sense for him to do so as the words were more than a greeting: they indicated obedience to the leader (Hitler) and were an oath of allegiance (to Hitler). This was made clear by a senior Nazi official, Gregor Strasser, as early ...


62

From the "contemporary German perspective", the answer is doubtless "Alaric", Juan Pujol García, known to the British as "Garbo". He was paid a total of US$340,000 and awarded the Iron Cross, second class, in July 1944 for his contributions to the war effort. He operated a network that grew to 27 sub-agents in all parts of the UK, communicating via post to ...


55

No country is impossible to invade. Andorra could invade the USA. The question you should have asked was "Was Switzerland Impossible to Conquer during World War II?". The answer is no country is impossible to conquer. But there is great variation in the probability that a specific country will actually conquer another specific country if it tries to ...


50

Well, not officially. Insulting the Führer or insulting Hitler, any laws for that? 'Insulting the Führer' was often interpreted as being a Lèse-majesté, codified from the beginning of the 2nd Reich in 1871 as "Majestätsbeleidigung und Verunglimpfung des Staatsoberhauptes (§§ 94 ff. RStGB, 90 StGB)", and still a German law in §90 StGB. After January ...


45

The Soviets were caught by surprise and suffered massive casualties as a result. See this Wikipedia article. Lots of aircraft were destroyed on the ground, not the air. The first attacks began at 03:00 on 22 June. The Soviets had been caught by surprise, their aircraft bunched together in neat rows which were vulnerable. The results were devastating ... ...


43

Ok, since I think I finally got your real question (as I see it): I'm simply asking if the defense of Switzerland during WW2 was overrated. Many people claim that the country was impossible to occupy, I just want to know if this is not clearly exaggerated. The emphasis is what I interpret as your "real" question (since there is a lot of confusion here) ...


27

As I see it, the value of the Soviets telegraphing they indented to honor their treaty with the Czechs would be to call the German's bluff. The Czechs were no push over and the German army was not ready. With a promise of Soviet troops it's possible the Czechs would have decided to fight and the Germans would not have invaded. How possible was it to for the ...


25

What factors were Hitler's / Germany's motivations for WW2? Revanchism, stealing raw materials, and racial hatreds. The Swiss are largely German-speaking / Germanic, so there's no "racial superiority" factor to promote invasion and de facto depopulation/extermination and colonization. They don't have a excessive amount of arable land for "true German" ...


22

The Germans were certain they could. For instance, their 1940 plans for Operation Tannenbaum estimated that a force of 300,000 to 500,000 men would have been sufficient. Swiss military leadership also thought that an invasion would have been successful: Their revised military plan for the event of an invasion, the Réduit national, called for a delaying ...


20

Magnus Hirschfeld, a researcher on sexuality and early advocates for gay rights amassed a huge body of research on homosexuality and transsexuality. In '33, he was heading and institute at the Charité University in Berlin. The Archive of his Institute was burned completely, a huge body of research was lost. This did not happen "just" because he was jewish, ...


17

The Wikipedia article cited in another answer lists among reasons ...equipment, like that of the Red Army, was largely obsolescent and suffering from prolonged use. The Great Purges had also hit aircraft manufacturers, and the loss of personnel ended the Soviet lead in aircraft design and aeronautics (...) The aviation industry was disrupted, severely, and ...


16

Yes, at least one member of the Nazi party is known to have been horrified by the actions of the Japanese Imperial Army. It depends on what you understand by the (plural) term the Nazis I would, in this historical context, understand this as the Government or leadership of Germany or Japan both of which, together with Italy, were allies with a common ...


14

Organizational deficiencies, technical obsolescence, inexperience of pilots, surprise caused by Stalin's blunder First of all, claims that VSS lost 4000 planes in the first three days of war is somewhat dubious. This is mostly based on German sources, which is understandable since Soviets usually omitted exact data from this embarrassing period . Only ...


12

Heinrich Georg Stahmer Nazi Diplomat to China. (src ullsteinbild: 00253012, 00294136, 00294144)


11

There were many practical reasons why Switzerland was not occupied of which none of the first answer of @AmorphouBob apply Some of these reasons are: militarily Switzerland was considered a 'thorny' problem, as expressed in the question and the Swiss strategy there was no strategic advantage (Switzerland was surrounded by the Axis powers) an economic ...


11

No, since the greeting is being made to him or referencing him as the leader he would not greet or reference himself Nazi salute - Description By autumn 1923, some members of the Nazi Party were using the rigid, outstretched right arm salute to greet Hitler, who responded by raising his own right hand crooked back at the elbow, palm opened upwards, in a ...


11

Destruction of the Red Army and a feint towards Moscow While it is absolutely true that oil was the primary strategic goal of Fall Blau and indeed of whole the German offensive effort in 1942, way to achieve that goal was more complex. The Germans did enjoy a slight numerical superiority at the beginning of Barbarossa, due to the Soviet losses and piecemeal ...


10

#tl;dr Until 1947 it was dry cookie time. Until 1950 they were barred from being public servants, if in tier 1 and 2 category of "being nazi". After 1951 they got all the love for being loyal Germans, American allies and trustworthy anti-communists. The shadow of the past only befell few individuals, who after some kind of fall from grace were ...


10

In Mein Kampf as well as in Zweites Buch, Adolf Hitler advocates the idea of securing Lebensraum ("living space") at the expense of other nations in wars of aggression. His substantiation, as far as I remember, is that the ultimate goal of any Volk (a people/nation) is to survive and that land is needed for better development of a Volk and, in particular, to ...


10

I would not say so. The German advantage was in a superior doctrine and training at all levels, as well as better communications (availability of radios). Their officers and soldiers (infantry, tankers, pilots) spent more time in training before arriving at the front and they were taught a better tactics. Of course, using Stukas as flying artillery gave ...


10

The first question is what does one mean by Volga: Volga is a large river with many tributaries, the main one is Kama, which at some point (say, near the city of Perm), comes quite close to Ural mountains, see the two maps below. So, if Volga means the entire "Volga basin", then indeed there is not much in between at the nearest point. However, in ...


9

German Plans for amphibious landings in the Black Sea at Taman and Tuapse in support of Fall Blau in 1942. Kriegsmarine Marinefährprahme (MFP) in the Black Sea. (from Kriegsmarine: The Forgotten Service) Fuhrer Directive 43, issued on 11th July 1942, which detailed Plan BLUCHER, the proposed operations of the German 11th Army in crossing the Kerch Strait ...


9

Indirectly Historically, Sweden ended trade with Germany in November 1944. That is a bit late in the war, and Allies pressured them to do something much earlier, but there was always a threat of German army stationed in Norway and Sweden was practically isolated in Scandinavian peninsula. Add to that significant part of population that were anti-Communist ...


8

This is an hypothetical question. I'll try to answer based only on the military concept. You have already answered your own question, in part 4. You don't need to conquer the whole country; only the main cities and the fields are desirable. Forget about the mountains; you don't need them. Once in a while they'll have to attack some places to prevent ...


8

If this was considered, it has left no trace in written history. It is not mentioned in the relevant volume of Germany and the Second World War (Volume VI/II, pp. 843-863, "The Decision for Operation Blue"), nor in Warlimont's memoirs (pp. 226-233 of Inside Hitler's Headquarters, 1939-45) or Doenitz's (Searched the whole electronic text, no mention of ...


8

The Neutrality Acts of the 1930s in the United States were enacted with the exact intention of preventing the US from being drawn into foreign wars by sly or cynically contrived means, and there were specific provisions in those laws to restrict belligerent acts by US citizens and ships. Roosevelt was very conscious of the potential trouble that could result ...


8

You can look up details on Operation Dragoon, the invasion in Provence in August 1944, seems to have had at least some defenses set up. wiki: The relatively steep beach gradients with small tidal range discouraged Axis placement of underwater obstacles, but landing beaches had been defensively mined. another article: The 15th Infantry Regiment came ...


8

"Because Hitler", and his enablers, but even he had his reasons, if misguided. Hitler still believed Germany could win the war. And if they lost the Soviets would have their revenge. A strange mix of optimism and fatalism drove German strategic decisions. Optimism and Fatalism drives Desperation and Delusion A realistic assessment of the German position ...


8

Renown was a true battlecruiser in the Jackie Fisher sense. It was built during World War 1, and intended to fight other similarly armed battleships and battlecruisers of the German high seas fleet. Post Dreadnought both Germany and the UK built large fleets of such ships, with the distinction between battleship and battlcruiser mainly one of speed vs armor. ...


7

A quick search for the term: Gebrochener Preis (Psychological pricing), including some Bachelor papers, does not mention pre-war usage in Germany at all. One would have to go through newspaper archives to see how prices were displayed at the time. The author of your quote seems to have produced quite a lot of articles in the few years. Since he quotes ...


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